Understanding issues facing African American Owned Businesses from Brand-Image to the Supply Chain

Understanding issues facing African American Owned Businesses from Brand-Image to the Supply Chain

Applying Quality Management to African American Businesses

MGMT 691 Graduate Capstone Proposal

By Quinton M. Mitchell

M.S. Management (Operations Management) 2018

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Worldwide Campus)


The purpose of this research paper is to (1) Explore any limitations to branding products or services created by African Americans as Black-Owned by conducting a literature review which analyzes scholars who argue for and against segregated economies, i.e., protected enclaves; (2) Understand consumer behavior differences between African Americans and other groups by understanding theories such as the Customized Communication Incongruity Theory by Arora & Wu (2012) and Socialization Theory by Ward (1987); (3) Explore how marketing and advertising affects African Americans and how diverse/positive marketing campaigns improves black success; (4) To show positive gains within the African American community but also to explore the hindrances to African American economic productivity such as higher insurance costs, lack of capital markets, sensitivity to economic conditions, etc., and (5) Discuss Supply Chain issues in African American businesses by using black-owned breweries for a test industry to implement concepts just as strategic alliances, best practices and/or to emulate practices such as those used by Japanese Keiretsu.

Table of Contents

  1. Managerial Problem stated as a Research Question…………………………….…….5
  2. Setting/Background……………………………………………………………………5-6
  3. Research Activity……………………………………………………………………….6-7
  4. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………7
    1. To open the community or to close off the community?……………………………7-10
    2. The underlying psychology of branding and marketing pertaining to African Americans…………………………………………………………………….10-12
    3. Disparities between African American Owned Business and White Owned Businesses……………………………………………………………………12-16
  5. How African Americans respond to brand image & issues regarding advertising and media portrayals…………………………………………………………………………….16-20
  6. African Americans in the Supply Chain & the need for Strategic Alliances or Joint Ventures………………………………………………………………………………20-32
  7. Is the Japanese Keiretsu model appropriate for African American Breweries? ….33-39
  8. Conclusions………………………………………………………………………….39-41
  9. Annotated Bibliography…………………………………………………………….40-44

List of Figures

Figure 1.          2017 Top Black Owned Businesses by Black Enterprises…………….22

Figure 2.          Michael Porter’s (1979) Five Force of Competition…….………………32

Figure 3.          Zaibatsu vs Keiretsu by Yonekura (1985), cited by Grabowiecki (2012) …………33

Figure 4.          Theoretical Model for African American Brewery Consolidation………36

Keywords: African American, #business, #behavior

Managerial Problem stated as a Research Question:

Does the resurgence of labeling products as “Black Owned” has its limitations? Should African American owned businesses think bigger and take a risk by creating brand campaigns that targets a larger non-race specific consumer base? Should smaller African American owned firms join forces through concepts such as strategic alliances, joint-ventures, or even the Japanese concept of Keiretsu? Is it safe to view the black community as a singular entity, or does a complex intersectionality exists within the black-community, and, if so, which ideology, or which marriage of ideologies, is more effective at achieving sustained success for African Americans? In addition, can the establishment of a supply-chain network between African American owned businesses help improve visibility of brands, maximize economies-of-scale, improve service/item quality or value, and increase profitability?

I. Setting/Background:

African-American in business have a long history in the United States ranging from entrepreneurs or CEOs who have gone to build empires or sustain already established business empires; to running established firms who have made catered services and products towards African-Americans and the world at large, and the number of African-Americans winning managerial positions in name-brand American firms since the Civil Rights movement. Yet, Black-Owned businesses faces a plethora of issues ranging from access to credit, the risk-reward aspect of certain industries, and the fact that African-Americans, as with most Americans, have benefited positively from, while also being negatively impacted by the effects of globalism, the loss of labor protection, the hyper-competition of corporate multi-national companies.  

In addition, Gillian B. White (2017) wrote an article that noted black CEO representation peaked in 2007 but has been slowly dwindling due to removal or retirement. As a result, I am arguing that black-owned businesses who market their products as “black owned” instead should market their products towards all consumers, regardless of the self-empowered notion of supporting black-owned businesses, because the level of product visibility and profitability will increase. Essentially, be black-owned, sure, and be proud of that, but market and win customers regardless of who they are. However, this paper is not an indictment of Black-Owned branding, but rather an argument that the call for branding products as such should of course be from a sense of empowerment, but not to the extreme of exclusivity which could have detrimental effects on capital accumulation and distribution of profits amongst the community. Why have one market, when you can compete with larger companies in multiple markets? To support Black-owned businesses and possibly improve the quality-of-life of certain African American communities, thinking bigger and expanding consumer bases can increase African American economic prosperity. For example, we know that Toyota is a brand of cars that is obviously made in Japan, and the brand is synonymous with quality, but the Japanese benefit from a clever branding strategy where the products does the talking for the culture. The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations to assist black-owned businesses, not from a stance of exclusion, but rather to further normalize products for all consumers regardless of race.

II. Research Activity:

A brief background into African American business ownership from a historical perspective will be presented. In addition, a historical view of race-centric marketing will be presented to strengthen the premise that race and marketing are often in unison. This historical perspective will lead up to my initial business problems facing the community and then I will follow up on conceptual ideas that could generate benefits. Giving dues when needed to the current landscape, I will then offer my recommendation for focusing on brand-image marketed towards a diverse consumer base, which in my opinion, can increase black economic output without labeling itself as “black-owned”, but if a firm decides to brand themselves as black-owned, which is justified considering the complex history of the United States, then there needs to be a strategic re-training of the thought process to challenge oneself to expand what new markets black Americans can or should participate in. Qualitative research will then be discussed to link the marketing of brands to the importance of the supply-chain.

Finally, a summary of the supply-chain as far as key aspects will be discussed and then I will construct a conceptual supply-chain or strategic alliance theory in which an African American business owner could formulate strategic ideas. The goal of this project is to emphasis strategic-thinking while loosely threading upon the quality management philosophies of early scholars such as Deming, Juran, and Crosby, to get Black-owned business owners to think more expansionist-minded, while simultaneously being inclusive towards all communities.

IV. Literature Review

A. To open the community or to close off the community?

Cummings (1999) presents a study comparing African American entrepreneurs conducting business in the ghetto’s protected- market versus the suburbs or larger Metropolitan Statistical Areas and argues that African American firms outperform when operating in larger non-segregated environments. Cummings (1999) provides a qualitative and quantitative study regarding the flaws of racially-segregated economies by touching upon the enclave-theory and protected market theory by referencing researchers such as Drake & Clayton (1945), Cummings (1980), and Light & Rosenthein (1995). In the study, Cummings (1999) states, “Although racial segregation may be a prime factor promoting ethnic and enclave enterprise, it simultaneously undermines business growth and development”. In addition, Cummings (1999) shares findings from Brimmer and Terrell (1971) who states that African American entrepreneurs who depend upon a segregated-protected market have high potential for failure. Moreover, when faced with desegregation and group dispersion, businesses that depend exclusively upon an enclave market are likely to fail (Brimmer and Terrell, 1971).

Rueben & Queen (2015) studied how African American owned businesses suffer adversely from unequal access to capital markets and the prevalence of institutional barriers. Although not universally appreciated, African Americans have a long history of entrepreneurial achievements against odds. African Americans are more likely to start a business, yet, are less likely to succeed (Rueben & Queen 2015). Rueben & Queen (2015) stated that the success of minority businesses to employ more workers and raise the productivity of workers is essential to U.S. economic growth, considering the U.S. labor forecasts (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012, as cited by Rueben & Queen 2015), the 2025– 2050 outlook on the U.S. labor market is expected to grow slowly with most of growth coming from 55 million by minorities and immigrant workers. Further, despite these increases in the number of African American owned firms, African American entrepreneurs tend to participate in industry sectors with less capital requirements for start-up and expansion. However, some of these industries have lower revenue streams. Yet, when African American entrepreneurs operate in high revenue generating industries, their average annual revenue and average annual payroll per employee are significantly lower than their white counterparts (Rueben & Queen 2015).

The yearning to empower black businesses has led to a conflict in policy ideologies as presented by Cummings (1999). The enclave economy theory alludes to the positive outcomes associated with racially or ethnically segregated communities, but considering the criticisms presented by Tabb (1970) such as (1) smaller markets, (2) lower income consumers, (3) higher insurance rates, (4) inability to access credit, (5) higher rates of theft, and (6) limited access to capital, there are parties at be that wish to open the black community to larger markets but from the stance of community re-invigoration, yet not entirely from a segregated mentality. According to Cummings (1999), community-based development initiatives are activities inspired by or aimed at service social groups in a locality. In addition, community-based development initiatives also refer to those efforts organized by people who share a common urban geography (Blakely 1994).  

Strategies that come from inwardly focused values and not economic realities are likely not going to make a competitive advantage (Barney & Hesterly, 2015, p 6). This touches upon my argument regarding the general trend in the growth – as far as a calling or social justice movement – of marketing products or services as Black-owned. There is nothing wrong with this, yet there are many assumptions and a diversity of ulterior motives that can occur when there is a calling for a segregate mentality. Such as, considering the social nature of human beings when classified, there can be a limit on the expressive modes – which can be profitable – that a group feels they can participate in. I call this a “culture-trap”, in which the standard or traditional culture is such a firm aspect of identity, that deviating to innovate for an individual, can have detrimental social and psychological effects. In addition, this “culture-trap” not only limits innovation, it can lead to issues such as brain-drain (when intellectuals leave the community in order to associate themselves with more supportive individuals), attrition (leaving the community), and the recycling effect of standard discourses when relating to issues effecting a community.  Also, there have been clear examples of black-on-black business crimes or political corruption, in which the culprits have often used the calling for black segregation for their own financial and personal gains.

 There seems to be a standard agreed upon set of values for African-Americans when consciously entering the business arena, i.e., a sense of liberation and self-empowerment, and although these yearnings are noble and arguably justified considering the sociopolitical and economic truths of African-American culture (slavery, segregation, red-lining, police profiling, etc.), yet the ultimate goal is, of course, to empower the group, yet it has to be based inevitably on an open-market, non-exclusive long-term agenda – with active but non-exclusive black participation – where products or services are focused on the bottom-line of profitability, penetrating new markets (both physical, i.e., foreign countries, but also unrealized cultural markets, i.e., cultural facets of American culture with black participation but that aren’t associated with black cultural as a whole) and the realization of a multicultural globalist reality based on a post-racialist idea or aspiration.

However, the claims provided by Cummings (1999), Rueben and Queen (2015), and Tabb (1970) are rebutted by Chaplain (2012) who argues that integration has destroyed the black economy. The black community lacked the requisite socio-cultural characteristics to develop a robust entrepreneurial tradition and, second, that integration, as an independent variable, destroyed black-owned business. Chapin (2012) studies the affects of government regulations which highly curtailed African American business growth and this provides more historical background on my study. Since insurance is a major part of entrepreneurship and running a business, Chapin (2012) study can shed light on the emotional reasons many African Americans are compelled to market their goods as black-owned and might give credence to the calling for black separatism. Yet, a major focus for business ownership growth and development in the African American community must be on the strategic expansion of the employer firms (Rueben & Queen 2015).

Chaplin (2012) seems to be of the vein of intellectuals who argue segregation as a benefit to African-Americans; however, Chaplin (2012) is sensitive to history, and only seems to be basing his premise on the fact that systemic injustice such as a society built on “white Affirmative-Action” had a detrimental effect on blacks, even though black communities formulated under this system and showed signs of progress. Yet, Cummings (1999) study on the undermining of business growth and Rueben & Queen (2015) study which shed light on the future growth of minority groups in the United States, I feel that there is a calling for creating a black-owned business mentality, yet, there is also the need for it not be exclusive. Essentially, we need more entrepreneurs and businesses owners, but the underlying motivation must be global and catering towards all people.

B. The underlying psychology of branding and marketing pertaining to African Americans

Jeffrey Steven Padoshen (2008) presents a compelling study into how African Americans value and apprise goods based off unique characteristics of their community. As “minority” groups such as African Americans and Latinos grow in overall proportion to America as a whole, particular attention must be placed on the understanding of their consumption characteristics (Padoshen, 2008). Padoshen (2008) presents a study that investigates word-of-mouth and brand loyalty within the context of durable-goods purchases in the African American community to see if there are effects on purchase decisions when a supplier was at one time linked to the slave trade, and if there’s a preference for purchasing products which come from black-owned companies. Padoshen (2008) provides a historical background into African American communication by referencing Thorp & Williams (2001) who argued that African American uprooting from their African homeland destroyed the means of communication. Further, Padoshen (2008) references Harris-Lacwell (2004) & Gothard (2001) who argued that oral-storytellers remedied these severed means of communications (Thorp &Williams, 2001) within the black community. Padoshen (2008) references Gothard (2001), Thorp & Williams (2001), & Harris-Lacwell (2004), & Miller & Kemp (2005) many times throughout his insightful study. Both Gothard (2001) and Miller & Kemp (2005) defined word-of-mouth communication within the context of the African American community – a major part of African American culture – as having four (4) distinct elements, which is trust, respect, open-voice, and black-to-black communication.

Regarding the open-voice element of African American culture, which I deem as important, Padoshen (2008) references Miller & Kemp (2005)  who defined this element as the ability to have an exchange of opinions that might not be welcomed by the outside population, and that the Black Church is highly trusted institution in the black community because it is solely owned and controlled by the black community and is a “prime exemplar” of an open-voice facilitating venue, considering, according to Harris-Lacewell (2004) and Miller & Kemp (2004) – as referenced by Padoshen (2008) – the Black Church is seen by many as the critical location for the definition of truth, which, fostered by open interaction, allows individual to enter a process that helps them create a greater and more acceptable worldview. In Padoshen (2006) study, it was summarized that the Black Church (Harris-Lacwell, 2004; Miller & Kemp, 2005), & Barbershop, Beauty Salons and other informal settings (Gothard, 2001; Harris-Lacwell, 2004) helps fosters black-to-black communication. “Authentic” African American community leaders “who tell it like it is” (Tharp and Williams, 2001) also play a large role in the fact that they are seen with respect, and therefore become a preferred source of information (Padoshen, 2008). Further, Street cred can also have mass appeal (Miller and Kemp, 2005) in which a highly respected celebrity exposes their like (or dislike) for a product (Padoshen, 2008).

According to Padoshen (2008), African American culture is one in which greater distinctions are made between outsiders and insiders compared to Anglo-American culture (de Mooij, 1998) and significant weight is attached to personal qualities. For many African Americans, premium brand names and symbols are mechanisms that reflect the hard and long portrayal of higher aspirations (Miller and Kemp, 2005). Further, Miller & Kemp (2005) speaks into how African-Americans favor brand-names because it is reflecting a “badge” or “badge of honor”, particularly for a group who was largely relegated to be an outsider, thus, wearing brand-names helps to include these people into the overall larger culture.  In addition, Padoshen (2008) states that African Americans have indicated that when purchasing automobiles, brand nameplate, looks and style are more important in their purchase decision than safety when compared to Anglo Americans (Packaged Facts, 2006).

Padoshen (2008) references one of his prior studies (Padoshen & Hunt, 2006) to support his claim that historical treatment of African Americans, similar that of Jews who suffered under the Holocaust, can have generational effects when buying products from sources who are equates with supporting or benefiting from the systemic injustices that kept that their people subjugated. The most important finding of Padoshen (2008) finding is that, African Americans indicate that they are no more trusting of the advice they receive in comparison with that of Anglo Americans. Padoshen (2008) research is an exceptional example of the dilemma facing most African Americans in my opinion, which is that studies – even if objective without any sort of racial bias – assumes a distinct racial and sociopolitical characteristic than that from the larger culture they are technically a part of. This bias, even if assumed on noble grounds to prevent an issue such as systemic injustice, can never lead to a full understanding of human nature. Essentially, we can define a group up to a point, but can never fully know a group, or even a group understanding itself entirely, which isn’t a bad thing – from a business perspective, this is new unrealized markets and ways towards profitability.

C. Disparities between African American Owned Business and White Owned Businesses

Tang & Smith (2013) conducted a study that researched African American business disparity in comparison with White-owned businesses regarding market segmentation, product differentiation, and competition, but their findings suggested that the difference was not statistically significant. Tang & Smith (2013) studied the largest African-American owned employer firms from 1998-2008, as published in Black Enterprise Magazine, in which businesses on the list must be at least 51 percent African American-owned if a private company, or African Americans must own at least 51 percent of the controlling shares if the company is publicly traded and be willing to voluntarily provide financial data. Yet, Tang & Smith (2013) admits a bias in their research as far as selection of candidates from the Black Enterprise Magazine, in that some of the firms on the list may be “front companies”, in that they are non-African American owned but registered as such and that certain actual African-American owned firms may not have given up financial data to maintain a non-disclosure position. From personal experience in government and corporate procurement, where seeking minority, woman-owned, or general small (no-racial assignment) businesses is a goal, I have found this misrepresentation of classification as something endemic in the procurement field. 

Tang & Smith (2013) utilized a contingency (environmental)-view to study Black business disparity when compared to White-owned businesses, in which they cite Aldrich’s (1979) definition of a contingency-view as explaining variations in firm performance from the interaction of the organization and environment, in which environments affect firms through the process of making or withholding resources, and the top three environmental contingencies are complexity, volatility, and munificence. Munificence is defined as very liberal in giving or bestowing or characterized by great liberality or generosity (Munificent, n.d.). Tang & Smith (2013), summarizes their utilization of the contingency (environmental influenced)-view, by saying, “When the rest of America catches a cold, Black America gets the flu. In other words, declines and dips in environmental variables like income, GDP, and labor supply will have a greater negative impact on black businesses. The number and type of contingent environmental factors able to influence the performance of established African American firms is undoubtedly numerous.”

A large motivator in conducting their research, Tang & Smith (2013) cited Fairlie & Robb (2012) who stated that it is estimated that closing the revenue gap between minority and non-minority owned businesses would add $2.5 trillion to the US economic output, creating 11.8 more jobs in America; Fairlie & Robb (2008) who stated that performance disparity might stem from issues of start-up capital, owner’s education level, and prior business experience, and Keollinger et al (2007) who stated that African-Americans have lower personal wealth, greater difficulty in obtaining financing, less education, and lack of entrepreneurial legacy. Further, Tang & Smith (2013) cited research by Puryear et al. (2001) which found that African-American owned businesses were the only minority group to report medium gross sales significantly lower than their white comparison sample, and African-American businesses where the least success as rated by their owners. In addition, Tang & Smith (2013) states that some of the studies pertaining to performance disparity between African-American and majority-owned firms, focus almost exclusively on sale proprietors or entrepreneurial firms undergoing the start-up stage (e.g. Buckley, 2002; Puryear et al, 2001; Richtermeyer, 2002); However, the focus on more established business will likely shift from overcoming liability of newness and survivability to concepts such as market segmentation, product differentiation, and competition as the business moves through the typical life-cycle (Hofer, 1975 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013).

Overall, Tang & Smith (2013) concluded that (1) the complexity and volatility associated with one of the most difficult US business environments since the 1940s (the Global Recession, in my own words) may increase the performance disparity between established African American and White-owned firms; (2) that existing knowledge about African American entrepreneurial firm performance may not transfer to larger, more established African American businesses; (3) their findings do not suggest that emerging African American firms should avoid entering complex and volatile industries;(4) emerging African American businesses often operate in industries that are more favorable, marked by less complexity and volatility such as construction, wholesale trade, and manufacturing (US Department of Commerce Minority Business Development Agency, 2011), but these industries are characterized as relatively low growth industries (Tang & Smith, 2013); (5) a “strategic choice” approach would imply that despite unfavorable industry characteristics, African American businesses may be able to actively shape their future and control their environment (Child, 1972), responding to threats and opportunities created by environmental change by altering organizational strategies in ways that enhance performance (Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978; Porter, 1980). The task for African American businesses then becomes developing the capabilities or distinctive competencies needed to overcome isolating mechanisms and mitigate industry conditions (Tang & Smith, 2013).

It is on black community-leaders to be open-minded (challenging the culture-trap I referred to earlier and opening new ways of thinking, while community member simultaneously keep open-minds as to not be lead to narratives which might not account for the entire truth) considering Thorps & Williams (2001) claim that authentic leaders who “tell it like it is” have strong community influence as cited by Padoshen (2006); in the African-American community, greater distinctions are made between outsiders and insiders with weight attached to personal qualities (de Mooji, 1998 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008); brand names and symbols are signifiers of higher aspirations and are considered badges-of-honor (Miller & Kemp, 2005 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008), so much so that safety – at least relating to automobile purchases – is largely a non-impactful decision (Packaged Facts, 2006 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008); African-Americans are no more trusting than Anglo-Americans (Padoshen, 2008); closing the revenue-gap between whites and blacks would add $2.5 trillion to the US economic output (Fairlie & Robb, 2012 – as cited by Tang &Smith, 2013); African-Americans have lower personal wealth, greater difficulty in obtaining financing, less education, and lack of entrepreneurial legacy (Keollinger et al, 2007 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013); more established firms will shift from survivability and newness to market segmentation, product differentiation, and competitions (Hofer, 1975 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013); information on African-American start-up and entrepreneurial performance many not reach established African-American firms, the Global Recession had a negative impact on the African-American community, and African-American firms often operate in less volatile or complex industries with relatively slow growth (Tang & Smith, 2013; US Department of Commerce Minority Business Development Agency, 2011), yet, these unfavorable characteristics – speaking to volatile and complex markets – may be able to actively shape African-Americans futures (Childs, 1972 – as cited by Tang & Smith); the black church, barber-shop and beauty salons and other informal settings fosters open interaction (Gothard, 2001; Harris-Lacewell, 2004 & Miller & Kemp, 2004 – as cited by Padoshen, 2006 and 2008). 

V. How African Americans respond to brand image & issues regarding advertising and media portrayals

Kristen Bialik (2018) of the Pew Research Center, noted that (1) more than 40 million blacks live in the United States, making up around 13% of the nation’s population according to 2016 Census Bureau estimates (US Census Bureau, 2016); (2) The share of blacks ages 25 and older who have completed four years of college or more has also roughly doubled during that span, from 12% in 1993 to 24% in 2017 (United States Census Bureau, 2017); (3) There were 4.2 million black immigrants living in the U.S. in 2016, up from 816,000 in 1980, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of census data, and recent growth in the black immigrant population has been fueled by African migration at 39% of the overall black immigrant population in 2016, up from 24% in 2000, but about half of all foreign-born blacks (49%) living in the U.S. in 2016 were from the Caribbean (Lopez & Radford, 2017, as cited by Bialik, 2018); (4) the wealth gap between blacks and whites decreased among lower-income families but increased among middle-income families. The Great Recession of 2007-2009 triggered a stark decline in wealth for U.S. families and further widened the already large wealth gap between white and black households (Konchhar & Cilluffo, 2017); (5) There has been a steady increase in the share of Americans who view racism as a big problem in the U.S. – especially among African Americans since 2009, when Barack Obama was elected. In 2017, about eight-in-ten blacks (81%) said racism is a big problem in society today, up from 44% eight years prior. By comparison, about half of whites (52%) said racism is a big problem in our society, up from 22% in 2009 (Neal, 2017), and (6) An overwhelming majority of blacks (92%) say whites benefit at least a fair amount from advantages that blacks do not have. This includes nearly seven-in-ten blacks (68%) who say whites benefit a great deal. By comparison, 46% of whites say whites benefit at least a fair amount from advantages in society that blacks do not have, with just 16% saying whites benefit a great deal (Oliphant, 2017).

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) conducted a study based off a survey sample pool from an online panel of more than three million consumers in the U.S. where the pool was stated as being generally reflective of the overall American consumer base – seeking equal representation among factors such as gender equality and educational attainment, although the sample relating to African Americans had more African American female respondents and when relating to Hispanic Americans had more younger male Hispanic respondents. Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) then compared global brand recognition among diverse ethnic groups by basing their main concerns on Phinney’s (1996) definition of ethnicity and his first aspect of ethnicity which is cultural values, attitudes, and behaviors of groups.

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) drew conclusions based from survey data analysis and a structural equation model which suggests that associations with global brands as a general category vary across ethnic groups, such as Caucasian consumers showing less of an appreciation of global brands, whereas African Americans and Hispanics show similar patterns to those of prior research such as that of O’Hara (1987) who suggests African Americans & Hispanics have more similarities to markets in lesser developed nations; the research of Alden, Steenfamp, and Batra (1999) who posited that most global brand findings are based on cross-national samples and that the global brand effect is particularly strong in less developed countries, and the research of Darley & Johnson (1993) who presented that African American marketplace behavior and attitudes toward advertising reflect those observed in less developed countries in Africa and Asia, including more positive attitude towards globalization. Furthermore, Dimofte, Johansoon, Bagozzi (2010), states, “U.S. consumers tend to be more diverse than in most mature market economies, with large ethnic-based market segments”, thus enabling Dimofte, Johansoon & Bagozzi (2010) to identify potential differences between Caucasian Americans and ethnic minority market segments. 

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010), understanding the complex issues with gathering, organizing, defining, and measuring global brand research, admits that research on global brands is more limited (Keller, 2007). Minority groups are young on average than the rest of the U.S. population and thus are more attractive to marketers (Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi 2010). Further, O’Hara (1987) & Pitts et al. (1989) as cited by Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) states that African American segment has long been of special interest to marketers, with products adapted for their special needs, especially in cosmetics, personal care products, food, and print media.

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) indicates that it is generally accepted that consumption behavior, especially a conspicuous brand choice, is to some extent reflective of individual identity and social aspirations, thus, choice of brand especially for product categories with social visibility, constitutes an expression of identity and achievement, or, in other words, self-expressive markers and identity forgers considering global-brands are well-known and widely recognized, which thus makes them more adept and effective at service a social function. Overall, Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) summarizes African American and Hispanics generally favored globalization; Caucasians did not think that global brands had higher quality, but Caucasians did feel global brands had consistent quality; African Americans and Hispanics perceive the prices of global brands as higher, but all three groups show a cognitive consistency that global brand is a relevant attribute, and that African Americans and Hispanics favor higher quality although the sale of higher quality goods are best marketed when the aspiration-factor is implied and not emphasized.

Arora & Wu (2012) conducted a study that researched how positive and negative stereotypes were found to impact ad-evoked feeling and brand equity, by theorizing that stereotypes through print advertising generates Customized Communication Incongruity. The results of the study conducted by Arora & Wu (2012) concluded that for positive stereotypes, both males and females prefer positive stereotypes, and positive stereotypes influenced ad-evoked feelings that influenced brand equity for both genders. Further, the Arora & Wu (2012) study concluded that brand loyalty and perceived quality dimensions of consumer-based brand equity were not significantly impacted by negative ad-evoked feelings, with males more agreeable of negative stereotype advertising than females, but both genders still generated negative ad-evoked feelings. The simplest way to summarize Arora & Wu’s (2012) theory of Customized Communication Incongruity, is when an individual sees an advertising that results in a mismatch or distortion of values or expectations. Thus, their study relating to racial stereotype-based advertising is meant to study how people react to media that is arguably stereotypical, and whether this response has effects on brand-value.

The Customized Communication Incongruity Theory by Arora & Wu (2012) builds off schema-based research provided Leoff (2002) who suggested that ads that do no match advertising expectations are more likely to draw consumers’ attention and proceed more extensively than ads that match advertising expectations, thus providing a way for brands to stand out. Advertisers have a strong influence on shaping consumer perceptions as advertisements can either help eradicate the negative perceptions of African Americans, or they can facilitate pervasive stereotypes, which may increase racism (Arora & Wu, 2012). In other words, ad campaigns that break stereotypes can spur continued interests. Arora & Wu (2012) cited Stevenson & Swayne (2011) whose research suggested that as of the late 90s, there were a small percentage of black models used in in magazine advertisements when compared to the general population. Further, Arora & Wu (2012) cites Cohen & Garcia (2005) who suggested that application of negative stereotypes of a racial group, with media as a reinforcement tool, brings discrimination and stigmatizations to the front, and media when based on stereotypes can have adverse effects to self-esteem, self-efficacy, and even level of achievements.

Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) conducted a study on outdoor advertising regarding African Americans and found that there are differences between white and black consumers’ receptiveness to outdoor billboard advertising. These differences are highly significant across each of the items within the scale of receptiveness, measuring awareness, influence on patronage, information conveyance, and overall attitude toward the medium. The receptiveness difference is at least in part a function of education and income, and the differences lose their significance only at the highest levels of both. Maybe surprisingly, the affluent black consumers without college education show higher levels of receptiveness (Fortenberry & McGoldrick 2011).

Yet, Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) cites Ward’s (1987) socialization theory, in order to find reasons for why college-educated affluent blacks mimic less receptiveness to billboards similar to that of their white counterparts and concluded that education socializes people to be more critical away from family and personal social bonds, and that the increased income generated by furthering education helps people migrate to areas where billboard advertising isn’t as common or accepted. Lastly, Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) cites Morris (1993) and Yoon (1995) who summarized that Black Americans demonstrated a greater degree of openness in discussing the influence of billboards within their society and supported the views that they have strong interest in material possessions.

Yuki Fujikoa (1999) conducted a study to show the effects of vicarious contact via television on stereotypes of African Americans among White and Japanese college students, in which the study provided some evidence that television messages had a significant impact on viewers’ perceptions when first-hand information was lacking. The study suggests that perceived positive portrayals of African Americans on television are effective in reducing negativity (Fujikoa 1999). It is more effective to reduce negative stereotypes of African Americans when we interact with many different African Americans who display counter-stereotypical behavior than when we interact with intimate African American friends (Fujikoa 1999). Since television can show a variety of positive African American models to a relatively large audience, television seems to have a great potential for stereotype reduction. Fujikoa (1999) cites Berg (1990) who stated that stereotypes are not necessarily negative, but they can destructive or bad when used by the dominant group to underscore majority-minority differences or to make some other (e.g. ethnic minority) groups inferior. Further, Fujikoa (1999) cites Berg (1990) who stated that interracial contact helps develop a mutual relationship between members of the two ethnic groups (e.g. White and African Americans), and we may expect an improvement in racial attitudes.

VI. African Americans in the Supply Chain & the need for Strategic Alliances or Joint Ventures

To develop insights into how a black supply chain would look like, we must first see which industries employ large numbers of African Americans, and then select a specific industry to go further. Regarding industry participation, more than half of the 106,566 African-American (AA) owned employer firms (67,665 or 63.5 %) participate in only 5 of the 22 major North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sectors: (1) Health Care/Social Assistance, (2) Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, (3) Retail Trade, (4) Administrative Support/Waste Management, and (5) Construction. This leaves fewer than 40 % (36.5 %) of these firms in the remaining 17 industry classifications” (Rueben & Queen 2015). Further, according to Rueben & Queen (2015) stated that while critics will contend that this revenue disparity between African American business owners and other groups is due significantly to the type of industry in which most African-American business owners participate (lower earning, labor-intensive sectors versus higher earning, capital-intensive sectors), this analysis does not support that contention. Although African-American business owners do not have high participation rates in manufacturing and utilities sectors which are high yielding, capital-intensive industries, the highest industry sector participation for African-American businesses include 5 of the top 10 revenue generating industries for all firms (Rueben & Queen 2015).

Yet, to reiterate, Rueben & Queen (2015) more than half of the 106,566 African-American (AA) owned employer firms (67,665 or 63.5 %) participate in only 5 of the 22 major North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sectors: (1) Health Care/Social Assistance, (2) Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, (3) Retail Trade, (4) Administrative Support/Waste Management, and (5) Construction, yet these 5 industries are included in the top 10 revenue generating industries for all firms.

Black Enterprise Research (2016), of the organization Black Enterprise, which defines itself as a total media firm whose goal is providing premier business, investing, and wealth-building resources for African Americans, presented the following list of top-performing African-American firms.

Figure 1 – Black Enterprise Research List of Top African American Businesses by Revenue (2016)

According to the United States Census Bureau (2012) the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. business economy. NAICS was developed under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and adopted in 1997 to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). NAICS codes from personal experience are important because from a government procurement standpoint, many solicitations are issued based on NAICS codes, so the more a firm has diverse NAICS codes, the more chance they have at being discovered by government contracting agencies, but also the higher possibility of the firm relating their company’s unique products of services to that of government issued solicitations. For example, while in the United States Air Force, while serving with the 325th Contracting Squadron at Tyndall Air Force, Florida, when soliciting for commercial items, equipment, commercial construction, IT products etc., I was required to find sources based on NAICS codes. If a firm didn’t have a NAICS code listed under their profile either in the Government-Point-of-Entry called Federal Business Opportunities or through another market research tool such as the Small Business Administration’s Dynamic Business Search (http://dsbs.sba.gov/dsbs/search/dsp_dsbs.cfm), then than firm might be overlooked. 

A brief skim over the top twenty firms as provided by Black Enterprise Research (2016), it seems to align to the research provided by Rueben & Queen (2015) with Health Care/Social Assistance, Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, and Retail Trade (which I will caveat as including automotive parts sales and food services) being represented. Yet, from the view of any onlooker in this paper, there is something missing: there are no actual large name, visible brand names, or brand-name manufacturers on the list, i.e., Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Starbucks, etc.

This leads back to issues facing African-American firms such as (1) unequal access to capital markets and the prevalence of institutional barriers (Rueben & Queen, 2015), (2) issues of start-up capital, owner’s education level, and prior business experience (Fairlie & Robb, 8008 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013), and the reality of a historical treatment in which African-Americans entered the business arena when the United States was already on its way to de-industrialization and globalization, i.e., the cost and liability of being a large manufacturer were disadvantageous to African-Americans. So, it seems that African American firms are highly active either as suppliers within already established supply-chains that supplements larger manufacturers – either as multi-year contract suppliers through agreements with larger firms, or as stand-alone units that are smaller than more visible corporate entities such as Fortune 500 companies. African-American firms can generate profits, but as far as dominating markets in comparison with standard Fortune or S&P 500 firms, it seems that African-American firms are used by these firms to maintain smaller demographic specific markets (for example, Johnson and Johnson owing a firm that sells black hair-care products) or helping achieve their larger strategic-goals by making including them as suppliers within their supply-chains.

This insinuates that (1) winning long-term contracts with larger firms is vital and (2) overcoming capital-constraints and operating in a globalist reality is something that needs to be realized by Black business owners. The second statement, can be fulfilled either through government financing programs, such as grants, loans, or obtaining government contracts; private financing from large banks who have a goal of supporting minority-owned business; private financing through black-owned banks, such as Carver Federal Savings Bank (https://www.carverbank.com/), who theoretically can target or work with viable black-owned firms to issue credit for start-up firms or established firms while simultaneously expanding their reserves, and/or luring in foreign-direct investment through acceptable financial institutions, particularly in developing regions such as Africa in which the majority of black immigration to the United States are coming from.

Whitfield & Farrell (2010) conducted a study that suggested that African American executives were less likely to perceived constructive dimensions of organizational culture. Whitfield & Farrell (2010) references Gomez-Mejia & Palich (1999) who stated that a diversity inclusive corporate culture is said to improve innovation and adaptiveness in heterogeneous market segments faced by international companies, and Crook et al (2008) who stated that building diverse supply-chains is seen as an additional effective means of increasing a firm’s performance similar to employer diversity. Additionally, Whitfield & Farrell (2010) references the United States Small Business Association (2001) who stated that minority-owned businesses have been a growing segment of the U.S. economy, nearly doubling as a percentage of the economy from the mid-1990s to early 2000s, and Eroglu, Green Thornton, & Bellenger (2001) who stated that this growth has become a business necessity. 

Whitefield & Farrell (2010), concludes their research by stating, “There is some cause for optimism among these findings of perceptual differences. Between the non-minority buyers and the African American supplier CEOs the significant difference is that these suppliers see the buyer culture as less constructive. The African American CEOs see less passive defensiveness and less aggressive defensiveness than the buyers. For the African American, the views are different from Caucasians but not extreme or opposite. The Hispanic minority CEOs perceptions are more divergent from the perceptions of Caucasian buyers. For the Hispanic supplier CEOs, the buying organization culture appears defensive to cultural diversity.” In summary, regardless of what color the supplier or buyer is, when purchasing firms that are white-owned or black-owned, or for suppliers who are black-owned or white-owned, there is an easier framework to conduct business.

Selecting a specific industry and developing a specific-supply chain model for a firm is theoretical for this paper. Speaking for the need to implement standard Supply-Chain concepts such as Enterprise Resource Planning systems (SAP, Peoplesoft, Oracle), utilizing third-party logistic firms, speaking to supply-chain concepts such as Statistical Delivery rates or Quality control, or issues of warehousing, doesn’t necessarily offer coherent strategies for improving African-American firms. Instead, the research I have pulled insinuates that African-American firms are profitable yet tend to operate in the role of supplier to larger firms, considering the capital constraints are often to daunting to be an effective large scale manufacturer or conglomerate, and/or African-American firms tend to operate as stand-alone entities functioning within the larger economy and catering towards customers either on a non-exclusive first-come first-serve basis regarding their products (restaurants, logistics companies, healthcare services, or IT services), or operation on an exclusive-basis in which products or services are catered towards unique cultural taste such as barbershops, cosmetics, etc.

For African-American owned firm to reach economies-of-scale – considering the institutional barriers, capital constraints and business realities – strategies such as strategic alliances or joint-ventures between African-American owned firms could be implemented to join forces thus facilitate maximizing economies-of-scale. This strategy could reconcile the realities of the modern American business environment which is defined by expensive labor costs, the potentiality of collective-bargaining or unionism, and free-trade in a globalist reality. By developing strategic alliances or joint-ventures between African-African firms, even if firms are unrelated to each other as far as the products or services they offer, this could help pool human and financial capital, limit tactic knowledge, facilitate mutual marketing of each other’s products, etc. Essentially, since African-Americans were introduced to the free-market of the mid-to-late twentieth century, when being a stand-alone manufacturer was becoming a more daunting task, African-American firms can combine forces, under single incorporation, in order to have more a visible and real impact on the economy. Former separate CEOs could then serve as board-members and by pooling together each other’s profitability under one roof this could help this theoretical firm get public financing which would then create more capital to expand into Afro-centric markets but also markets that aren’t racially exclusive. This compounding effect would not only have a social effect on the general public because people would be able to associate a large-scale firm with African-American success but could help create capital that could be targeted on innovation that would otherwise be non-existent if firms operated as stand-alone units.

For African American firms to reach the level of profitability that can have a global effect but also a community-empowering effect, the goal must be about winning a competitive advantage. A firm has a competitive advantage when it can create more economic value than rival firms (Barney & Hesterly, 2013, p 8). In addition, Barney & Hesterly (2013) states that competitive advantage is when a firm creates more economic value than rival firms, and economic value is simply the difference between the perceived benefits gained by a customer that purchases a firm’s products or services and that full economic cost of these products of services. In order words, the customer must think a product or service has more value (Benefits > Cost = Value) than that of competitors, but the firm is liable of sustaining this perception of higher value by providing quality services or products.

To achieve competitive advantages, not at the expense of other Black-owned businesses, African American firms may benefit through strategic alliances, joint-ventures, or the Japanese concept called Keiretsu.  In a joint venture, the companies start and invest in a new company that is jointly owned by both parent companies (Marzec, 2016). A strategic alliance is a legal agreement between two or more companies to share access to their technology, trademarks, or other assets. A strategic alliance does not create a new company (Marzec, 2016).

Regarding the concept of Keiretsu, Minor, Patrick, & Wu (1995) referenced both The Economist (1991) which stated that the most inclusive definition for keiretsu is that they are families of firms with interlocking stakes in one another, and Cohen (1985) who stated that keiretsu were encouraged by guidance, tax incentives, financial guarantees, direct subsidies, and protection from foreign competition. Further, Minor, Patrick, & Wu (1995) explains that keiretsu were the descendants of the pre-war zaibatsu, which were vast mining-to-manufacturing conglomerates based on the banking system, but the zaibatsu were disbanded, yet restriction on cross-shareholding were lifted; One of the unique aspects of keiretsu is that from 20 per cent to 40 per cent of stock is owned by member companies of its own keiretsu, and 60-80 per cent of the keiretsu stock is never traded; Horizontal, or bank-centered, keiretsu bring companies together to work on long-term projects that would be financially impossible for a single firm. These projects often turn out to be highly profitable because foreign competitors cannot take advantage of such partnerships where antitrust laws are more stringent (Boarman, 1993), and the vertical, or supplier keiretsu, forms when major manufacturers, such as an automobile maker or manufacturer of household electrical appliances, contract with suppliers for sole sourcing in exchange for production agreements excluding other buyers. Japan’s keiretsu, Korea’s chaebol, and Mexico’s grupos have played an important role in their countries’ development since the Second World War. These industrial conglomerates, bound by family ties, long-standing friendships, common ownerships and interlocking directories, and closely allied with their national governments, have spawned and linked industrial clusters in agriculture, minerals, basic industry and manufacturing – raising national productivity and their nation’s international competitiveness (Minor, Patrick & Wu, 1991).

Regardless of the organizational structure of Black-owned firms there always needs to be an emphasis on quality. High-quality goods and services can provide an organization with a competitive advantage (Evans & Lindsay, 2014, p 4). Further, Evans & Lindsay (2014) summarizes the Three Gurus of Quality Management – Deming, Juran, and Crosby – by saying, “Despite their significant differences to implementing organizational change, the philosophies of Deming, Juran, and Crosby are more alike than different. Each view quality as imperative in the future competitiveness in global markets; makes top management commitment an absolute necessity; demonstrates that quality management practices will save, not cost money; places responsibility for quality on management, not workers; stresses the need for continuous, never-ending improvement; acknowledges the importance of the customer and strong management/worker partnerships; and recognizes the need for the difficulties associated with change the organizational culture” (p. 64). 

Many of the African American firms on the Black Enterprise Research list, such as automotive parts suppliers, can be defined as contract manufacturers. According to Evans & Lindsey (2014) a contract manufacturer is an organization that performs manufacturing and/or purchasing and/or pushing need to produce a product or device not for itself, but as a service to another (Evans & Lindsay, 2014, p 43). This segment could be a good test to try out a strategic alliance, or, on a grander scale, a Keiretsu. Yet, in my own research, in I attempted to build an Excel spreadsheet based on the Black Enterprise Research (2016), to organize the data to find similar African American owned automotive part businesses. I did online searches into the businesses and conducted System for Award Management searches of the particular businesses’ registration and NAICS codes, but I felt the data of Black Enterprise Research (2016) wasn’t that viable for my model, however, it is valuable for basic information purposes.

As a result, I decided to propose an idea about what a black-owned Keiretsu in the brewing industry would look like. So, let’s talk about beer and wine – a favorite subject to many, even though there are other far more intensive fields (engineering, sciences, technology, high finances) that could have an impact, yet, I don’t have the technical acumen on these subjects, so any suggestions would be theoretical.

Brewers Association (2017) conducted a study that was based on two national surveys conducted by the Brewers Association on two national surveys: the annual Beer Industry Production Survey (BIPS) and the Brewery Operations Benchmarking Survey (BOS). The Craft Brewing Industry Contributed $67.8 Billion to the U.S. Economy in 2016, more than 456,000 Jobs

Small and independent American craft brewers contributed $67.8 billion to the U.S. economy in 2016. The figure is derived from the total impact of beer brewed by craft brewers as it moves through the three-tier system (breweries, wholesalers and retailers), as well as all non-beer products like food and merchandise that brewpub restaurants and brewery taprooms sell. The industry also provided more than 456,000 full-time equivalent jobs, with more than 128,000 jobs directly at breweries and brewpubs, including serving staff at brewpubs (Brewers Association, 2017).

Mark Snider (2016) of the USA Today did an article about the advancement of African Americans in craft brewing. Snider (2016) interviewed Kevin Blodger, of the Brewers Association, who chairs a diversity association at the organization, who stated, “While the numbers aren’t huge, I think there are more people of color starting to own breweries, work at breweries and be part of breweries. – there is not much advertising budget. It is a word of mouth thing, and if you look at the people that were originally involved in craft beer, it was white men. And we tend to associate with people that look like us.” Appealing to minorities will help sustain craft beer’s double-digit growth, which for several years has outpaced the comparatively flat overall U.S. beer market. Sales of craft beer rose 10%, or $23.5 billion, in 2016, amounting to a 21.9% share of the total market, the association says (Snider, 2016). Further, more blacks are imbibing craft beer. In 2016, African Americans made up 12% of weekly craft beer drinkers, up from 10% the year before, according to the Yankelovich Monitor survey (Snider, 2016). Interesting in the same article by Snider (2016), Garrett Oliver, an African American brew-master at the Brooklyn Brewery, stated, “why is craft brewing such a monoculture?”, yet, in the same article, Mark and Sharon Ridely – African American owners of Brass Tap Brewery (in predominately black Prince George County, Maryland – states that their brewery attracts a majority of out-of-town white customers from the nearby convention center but they do see a good minority population.

I personally feel that this all goes back to my argument of a “culture trap”. The overall culture of African Americans has not been exposed to the potential profitability of the craft-beer market. So, Mr. Garrett’s frustration might not be a systemic issue as far as blatant discrimination or disallowing black beer-brands, but more so traditional marketing towards African Americans has led them away from the industry. This possibility is both an internal and external issue that cannot be easily boiled down as discrimination, considering consumers are largely responsible for driving sales.  Essentially, if they don’t know, they simply don’t know, or if it’s not popular – considering the arguments from researchers presented earlier in this paper – they may not choose to participate or buy craft-beers because it’s not seen as a status-symbol, etc.

Anheuser Busch InBev NV (AB InBev) is a Belgium-based company engaged in the brewers’ industry. The Company owns a portfolio of over 200 beer brands. The Company’s brand portfolio includes global brands, such as Budweiser, Corona and Stella Artois; international brands, including Beck’s, Leffe and Hoegaarden, and local champions, such as Bud Light, Skol, Brahma, Antarctica, Quilmes, Victoria, Modelo Especial, Michelob Ultra, Harbin, Sedrin, Klinskoye, Sibirskaya Korona, Chernigivske, Cass and Jupiler. The Company’s soft drinks business consists of both its own production and agreements with PepsiCo related to bottling and distribution arrangements between its various subsidiaries and PepsiCo. Ambev, which is a subsidiary of the Company, is a PepsiCo bottler. Brands that are distributed under these agreements are Pepsi, 7UP and Gatorade (Reuters, n.d.).

After reading that last paragraph, it easy to see the sheer reach of AB InBev from shelf-space to what we see every single day, from daily sports games to major sporting events such as the Super Bowl, NASCAR, Stanley Cup, PGA master’s Tour, NBA Finals, etc. With rise of the Hispanic population in the United States – which a great thing that helps fulfill the American Dream – I have noticed a rise in beer sales catered towards Hispanic-Americans from Modelo, Pacifico, and Tecate. This is great, but I do notice that it might be another example of a missed opportunity for African-Americans who either assume themselves entirely to be represented within the larger context of society, or to simply not think that this market is for them. Owning a space within the beer industry can have a positive economic effect not only on the black community, largely considering that to many black leaders in urban communities that alcohol or other products are sold within the community by outsiders.

Yet, based on the example of Anheuser Busch InBev NV (AB InBev), the sheer scale of large corporations makes it harder for smaller businesses, i.e., corporations can prevent new entrants into markets with new entrants being a concept presented by Michael Porter (1979). The five forces of competition by Porter (1979) include (1) Threats of new entrants, (2) Bargaining power of suppliers, (3) Bargaining power of customers, (4) Threats of substitute products or services, and (5) Jockeying for position among current competitors in the industry under question. According to Porter (1979) the weaker the forces collectively, however, the greater the opportunity for superior performance. Further, Porter (1979) states, the seriousness of the threat of entry depends on the barriers present and on the reaction from existing competitors that entrants can expect.

If barriers to entry are high and newcomers can expect sharp retaliation from the entrenched competitors, obviously the newcomers will not pose a serious threat of entering (Porter, 1979). Regarding barriers of entry which relates to the threat of new entrants (which would be a consolidated black brewing business for my model), Porter (1979) provides six major sources for barrier of entry which are (1) Economies of Scale, (2) Product Differentiation, (3) Capital Requirements, (4) Cost disadvantages independent of size, (5) Access to distribution channels, and (6) Government Policy. Interestingly, the second major source for barriers of entry as provided by Porter (1979) which is Productive Differentiation relates to the beer industry, with Porter (1979) stating, it is perhaps the most important entry barrier in soft drinks, over-the-counter drugs, cosmetics, investment banking, and public accounting. To create high fences around their businesses, brewers couple brand identification with economies of scale in production, distribution, and marketing (Porter, 1979).

The Porter’s (1979) theory relates to the Tabb (1970) statement regarding African American businesses in which Tabb (1970) stated inability to access credit and limited access to capital as being a hindrances. Capital Requirements are Porter’s (1979) third major source of barrier to entry. Essentially, African American breweries must hurdle over larger firms’ brand-identification that is bolstered by their economies of scale, distribution, and marketing, but also African American firms need better access to capital. However, Porter’s (1979) sixth major source of barrier of entry which is Government Policy, might be to the advantage of African American owned firms (breweries within my example), by utilizing Equal Opportunity regulations under the Civil Rights Act to challenge practices in retailing such as “pay-to-play rules”, which can help African American firms fight for shelf space which is vital in brand identification. Further, Government Policy such as Small Business Administration loans might be an asset to minority ran businesses or breweries.

FIGURE 2 – Michael Porters (1979) Five Competitive Forces

Bray (2016) stated that shareholders of SABMiller and Anheuser-Busch InBev on Wednesday approved a deal valued at more than $100 billion to create a giant in the beer industry that would control some of the world’s best-known brands, including Budweiser, Corona, Hoegaarden, Leffe and Stella Artois. The takeover of SABMiller by its larger rival, Anheuser-Busch InBev, was approved by shareholders despite objections from some SABMiller investors. The combined company would account for 27 percent of beer sales worldwide and would have annual revenue of about $55 billion. The deal would also give Anheuser-Busch InBev, already the world’s largest brewer, a substantial operation in Africa, where it has little presence, and greater dominance in Latin America (Bray, 2016).

VII. Is the Japanese Keiretsu model appropriate for African American Breweries?

The beer market, as pertaining to African Americans could benefits from a Keiretsu model. If there are already large corporations – arguable white-owned – even though the intention of these large partnerships, strategic alliances, or corporations built on buyouts exists, then maybe African American owned breweries should join forces to compete. Imagine a scenario where black-owned breweries, self-made home-brewers (who could be outlets for market research by testing their beer directly with the public, friends, or even at church festivities), and bottlers came together, either by combining forces, by mergers and acquisitions thus alleviating Economics of Scale and possibility limitations to Capital Requirements as provided by Porter (1979), etc. On top of this, imagine these firms coordinating over warehousing space (which feeds into the supply-chain concept of Just-In-Time ordering and 3PLs – Third Party Logistic companies), entering into joint contracts with bottling companies where they could possibly get advantageous pricing for buying more volume, entering into future’s contracts with hops or grain suppliers, sharing workers from brewers or people in offices who do administration work, but, most importantly – yet, not essential – is all of this were coordinated through a black-owned bank who could issue loans and help expand reserves. Yet, even though I do feel this idea could work, yet, when regarding matters of black-owned banking as unifying factor to issue new debt or underwrite equity on the investment side of things, there are some concerns, which are presented below.

FIGURE 3 – Zaibatus vs Keiretsu by Yonekura (1985), cited by Grabowiecki (2012)

Grabowiecki (2019) provides information relating to keiretsu by mentioning that there are two types of keiretsu with the first being horizontal (Kinyu, i.e., financial based), non-hierarchical types (descending from prewar zaibatsu and generally associated with trading houses, e.g., Sogo Shosha), less tightly coordinated, which are connected by credit relations with a common bank and give preferential treatment to partners or joint ventures. Further Grabowiecki (2019) states that Vertical (Shihon, i.e., capital) keiretsu, on the other hand, are networks of subsidiaries operating within large corporations and subordinated to them by means of capital and long-term production-distribution relations (Grabowiecki, p. 182); has a pyramidal structure of shareholding and of personnel transfers (from core company to first-tier suppliers, from first-tier to second-tier, and so on) (Grabowiecki, p. 183) and clearly centralized executive managers (Grabowiecki, p. 186, para. 3).  

Further, Grabowiecki (2019) references Gerlach & Lincoln (2004) and Flath (2005) by stating where the vertical keiretsu operates within an industry, broadly defined, the horizontal keiretsu consists of firms from virtually every major industry in the economy, with especially strong representation in the key industries of the postwar high-growth period that was the era of its greatest strength (heavy industry, petrochemicals, materials processing, and banking and trading (p. 182). There are only six horizontal keiretsu which are Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuji, Sanwa, and Dai-Ichi Kangyo (Grabowiecki, p. 182-183 who cites Lynn & Rao, 1995).

In other words, a horizontal keiretsu is a type of conglomerate or a large business who has their hands within many industries, sometimes unrelated industries, and the first firm, personally, that comes to mind is General Electric. General Electric has multiple business-lines ranging from traditional lighting, healthcare, aviation, power, and renewable energy. General Electric (GE) is an example of a firm pursuing an unrelated diversification strategy, in which Barney & Hesterly (2016) states that when less than seventy percent of a firm’s revenues are generated in a single-product market and when a firm’s businesses share few, if any, common attributes, then that firm is pursuing a strategy of unrelated corporate diversification.

Yet, since most African American owned breweries likely lack equity or the presence of underwritten shares (stock, bonds, commercial paper, notes, debentures), the concept of keiretsu, specifically that of a vertical capital driven type, would not work. However, the keiretsu precursor in the zaibatsu would. Keiretsu, formal joint ventures, and strategic alliances seem more in line with larger more established firms, but a “micro-zaibatsu” could prove promising.  Interestingly, a horizontal keiretsu on a micro-scale would work better where now separate African American owned breweries would form a “family”, zaibatsu, or “cartel”, set up a holding company in a state such as Delaware for tax-purposes, but the parent company would do coordination of operations, supplier relations, marketing, wholesaling, advertising, etc. The profits from retail would flow into in the holding company.

FIGURE 4 – Theoretical Model for African American Brewery Consolidation by Quinton Mitchell (author of this paper)

Sharon Nunn (2017) stated that the number of black-owned banks operating in the U.S. has been dropping steadily for the past 15 years and fell to 23 this year, the lowest level in recent history, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. That has left many African American communities short of access to capital and traditional financial services, according to some banking experts. The 2008 recession hit the black banking sector especially hard, and if the current rate of closures of about two a year, as well as the industry-wide reluctance or inability to start banks, continues, black-owned banks could disappear entirely within the next eight to 12 years. Such banks comprise just a sliver of the overall U.S. financial sector, with collective assets of $5.5 billion, versus $16.3 trillion in the industry overall (Nunn, 2017). Yet, Nicholas Lash, a professor at the Loyola University Chicago, emphasized the decline of black-owned banks as being slightly insignificant presented by Nunn (2017), stated, “Size-wise they’ve been small. – So, their total impact on black communities cannot be very, very large.”. I find these last set of statements interesting but true. Let’s be honest, most Black Americans bank at everyday – white, if you wish to call them that – banks, which is also indicative of how much embedded African-Americans are already into the standard way of American life, from student loans, mortgages, investment banking, credit cards, etc.

This further calls the argument for black separatism into question, with the largest argument being that African Americans are already…Americans embedded with in a system, as with many others regardless of group. Yet, like my argument about furthering strategic-alliances, joint-ventures, or, in my opinion of Keiretsu, it also seems that black-owned banks need to join forces considering the completing fact stated by Nunn (2017), which is, “A prolonged period of low interest rates and intense competition, as bigger banks slowly move into under-served areas, have combined to contribute to the black banking sector’s decline, even after the recession’s end.”

Tanasia Kenney (2016), of Atlanta Black Star, presented five black breweries: (1) Black Frog Brewery of Toledo, Ohio, founded by United States Armed Services veteran, Chris Harris – which has marketability across racial spectrums considering the military veteran status, [http://www.blackfrogbrewery.com/]; (2) Cajun Fire Brewing Company of New Orleans, [http://www.drinkcajunfire.com/home.html]; (3) Harlem Brewing Company, [http://www.harlembrewing.com/]; (4) Harlem  Blue Brewery [http://www.harlemblue.com], and (5) 18th Street Brewery of Gary, Indiana  [http://www.18thstreetbrewery.com/]. Further, as detailed by Snider (2018), there is Brass Trap Brewery of Prince George County, Maryland, the Brooklyn Brewery, and Baltimore’s Union Craft Brewery. In addition, there is a black-owned winery based out of the famous Napa Valley, California, called the Brown Estate.

Higgins, Toms, & Uddin (2016) presented a study into the British beer industry regarding the industry’s usage of tie-arrangements, and the effects of risks and allocation of surplus between brewer and tenant. Further, Higgin, Toms, & Uddin (2016) studied how the British employed a model in the 1990s that was defined by vertical integration controlled by larger brewers over estates of tenants or directly-manage pubs, where the manger is technically an employee of the brewer and is only salary but does not incur most of the risk, however, doesn’t benefit from most of the profits. Yet, this model was challenged by regulators and brewers had to divest portions of their “tied estates” aka pubs or retailers. The new model brought a hybrid-systems where tenants managed pubs and licensees were paid based on percentages of property owned and beer sales margins (Higgins, Toms & Uddin, 2016). In other words, pubs, and retailers instead of being direct fronts from brewers at the end of their value or supply chain, instead gained a level of autonomy, to win more profits, but also, they incurred more the possibility of risk which could hurt profits.

Hybrids facilitate cooperation and reduces transaction cost (Higgins, Toms, & Uddins, 2016). Long-term inter-dependencies and relations contracting occurs in hybrid contexts that are neither hierarchical nor purely market based; personal relationships, reputation, and trust can also be important and counteract the purely cost driven motives that might underpin network governance (Higgins, Toms, & Uddins, 2016). Lastly, Higgins, Toms & Uddins (2016) states that sharing human capital binds networks together and improves their performance, as does the products technical specifications, thereby creating process improvements, and product development opportunities.

Imagine if these companies somehow worked together, while simultaneously operating like a Keiretsu (entering mutual contracts as far as marketing, distribution, bottling, information sharing, and warehousing), but having their finances controlled – at least partially at first – by a black-owned bank. Imagine a beer and wine conglomerate called…John Henry Beverages Global, which is a beer conglomerate, founded by black entrepreneurs, with initial funding and underwriting performed by a black-bank with supplementary financing from traditional banks (Bank of America, J.P. Morgan Chase – who would only be willing to voucher for debt only after profitability forecast are shown – but who could benefit on assisting a minority firm). A collective of breweries who hold cross-shares in each other but is marketed as an all-inclusive beer and wine holdings group that caters to all Americans (marketing itself upon on the Black American experience that inspired the nation as a whole – i.e., the Legend of John Henry which has an aura of hard-work in the face of adversity). Additionally, products can be sold in emerging markets, such as Africa where in certain nations beer is popular and sports such as soccer has a large following which offers an advertising and sponsorship opportunity.

According to Maureen O’Hare (2017), Nigeria overtook Ireland as the world’s second largest Guinness market, and Cameroon is the fourth-biggest market for Guinness and the beer is also brewed in Kenya, Uganda, and Namibia. Africa, with its $13 billion beer market, is the biggest source of beer sales for the owners of Guinness, the British multinational Diageo.

VIII. Conclusion

            Labeling a business as black-owned is not a bad move at all, considering the historical plight against African Americans. For example, African Americans did not have fair voting rights for 77% of the time the USA has been an officially independent nation. Trans-Atlantic slavery existed from the late fifteen-hundreds to the late eighteen-hundreds. 1776 (though September 17, 1787 was the official signing of the Constitution) to 2020 is 244 years. 1776 to 1965 (the year the Civil Rights Act was signed) is 189 years. 189/244 is .7745 or 77.45%, meaning African Americans since a declaration of American independence did not have voting rights for almost 80% of the time we have been officially in existence. Yet, the first recorded African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 after being abducted from Angola (The History Channel, an A&E Network, 2020). 2020 from 1619 is 401 years and 1619 to 1965 is 346 years. 346/401 is .862 or 86.2%. Thus, for only 55 years since 1965 (my father was born in 1959), African Americans have been able to have a political say in the 401-year history of what we become the official United States of America. You can further add weight to these numbers/percentages by adding this following fact by O’Donnell (2019) who stated that by 1890, the top 1 percent of the U.S. population owned 51 percent of all wealth. The top 12 percent owned an astounding 86 percent. The lower 44 percent of U.S. population—almost half the country—owned just 1.2 percent (O’Donnell, 2019). The sheer weight of not having voting rights mixed with the sheer volume of wealth owned by a few white hands, and adding on additional European immigration (Hispanic included depending on how they identify) and brutal Jim Crow Laws has resulted in the African American community statistically being left behind, and, sadly social ostracized for it. Lastly, add the fact that African Americans since the 1900 to 1990 only made up 11.6 to 12.1% of the population, yet, in 1910 – the Jim Crow Era – 90% of African Americans lived in the American South (Bennet, Martin  & Debarros, 1993, Census.gov, p.2).  

Yet, even when facing the residual effects of the past which still lingers on, the ability for the African American community to incubate wealth and prosperity is a noble task which must be taken seriously, e.g., promoting self-confidence in academic environments which values African American history/achievement and continuing to support Civil Rights legislation over fair access to federal contracts, minority small business set-asides, and equal opportunity regarding employment/job recruitment. However, the black community must not only incubate wealth, but it must also have an open-economy model which continues to gain loyal consumers across racial lines, national boundaries, etc. The claims that segregation was better for African Americans might have some truth to it but the economic scale I would argue would always be limited with that approach.

IX. Annotated Bibliography

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Higgins, D., Toms, S., & Uddin, M. (2016). Vertical monopoly power, profit, and risk: The British beer industry, c.1970-c.2004. Business History, 58(5), 667-693. doi:10.1080/00076791.2015.1041381

Kenney, T. (2016, October 26). 5 Black-Owned Breweries You Should Know About. Retrieved May 6, 2018, from http://atlantablackstar.com/2016/10/25/x-black-owned-breweries-know/

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Minor, M. S., Patrick, J. M., & Wu, W. (1995). Conglomerates in the world economy: Comparing keiretsu, chaebol and grupos. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 2(4), 35-45. doi:10.1108/eb008399

Munificent. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2018, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/munificent

Nunn, S. (2017, August 06). As Black-Owned Banks Struggle, Community Sounds Alarm. Retrieved May 6, 2018, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/as-black-owned-banks-withdraw-community-sounds-alarm-1502020801

O’Donnell, E. (2018, June 15). Are We Living in the Gilded Age 2.0? Retrieved October 11, 2020, from https://www.history.com/news/second-gilded-age-income-inequality

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Steven Podoshen, J. (2008). The African American consumer revisited: Brand loyalty, word-of-mouth, and the effects of the black experience. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(4), 211-222. 10.1108/07363760810882407

The History Channel, an A&E Television Network. (2019, August 13). First Enslaved Africans Arrive in Jamestown Colony. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-african-slave-ship-arrives-jamestown-colony

Whitfield, G., PhD., & Farrell, D., PhD. (2010). Diversity in supply chains: What really matters? Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 31-41. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.libproxy.db.erau.edu/docview/845502709?accountid=27203 United States Census Bureau. (2012, May 15). North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Main Page. Retrieved April 29, 2018, from https://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/

(An Image in the Static) Notes on the unfolding foreign policy of our times. The ACZ Network, China, Russia, The Belt and Road, Crypto, and Red Zion by Quinton Mitchell

A scene for Goldfinger (1964), copyright of United Artists. Ian Fleming’s fictitious SPECTRE is an analogy for the world runs. Factions of various groups with the same agenda.

We’ve been here before, haven’t we? I’m tired and finding the truth seems like a matter of endurance and this is something I struggle with, as I stare into this truth that I suspect.

What tipped me off to this was the fact that Erik Price of Blackwater is working for a Chinese based contractor called Frontier Services Group, which is in part helping clear the way for the Sino-Russian economic joint venture, The Belt and Road Project. This is odd because Prince donated and networked for Trump, so why is a Gung-ho US mercenary helping China despite the Trump administration’s economic nationalism against China? Also, this leads me back to the shadowy history of China in the final day of World War 2 where the CIA under Bill Donovan was conducting operations. This fact, reminds me of the current Hong Kong protests, which thus points light on Steve Bannon’s Goldman Sachs dealings in Hong Kong regarding digital currency. It seems that a type of 4d chess is being played, by playing both sides (hence why I use the James Bond image of SPECTRE), and the powers at be, such as banks and corporations are prepping for a new order, i.e., the inevitable goal of linking a democratic China into the global network. A new global order of larger economic blocs ran by corporations and banks that will link China, Russia, the USA, but Israel will have a very important managerial and religious role. This sounds crazy but I suspect Trump of being a New World Order president hiding behind the facade of a nationalist, but his nationalism and Russian apologetic is an attempt at sustaining old Anglo-Continental-Zionist supremacy for the new system that will come, likely after a large showdown such as World War 3 in the future. This is similar to how the order as is came into being after WW2 and there were many double-play intrigues leading up to both WW1 and WW2.

So, if you read this, take it for yourself. It’s not about me. It’s not about “good job, pat on the back, you deserve a prize”. Go out there and go find the truth. By the way, the ACZ Network is something I use to describe the Anglo-Continental Zionist network. It’s an odd collective of elites for the Anglo and American stock, European nobility and bankers, and Zionist Jews all working in unison, despite the surface appearance of tensions, e.g., in many cases Zionist organizations fund right-wing organizations who you would think are at odds with Zionist but they use this top-cover to increase Zionist power. For example in the United States within the right-wing, despite being a bastion of old white supremacy and antisemitism, there is a support for Zionism via Evangelical Christianity. Further, the right-wing is often militaristic with all of its glib of Soldier of Fortune or hunter aesthetics, is often used to fight Zion’s enemies, tapping into the aesthetic of the “Germanic Anglo-Saxon Teutonic Knight”, or be pawns within a larger global struggle in which they’re simply actors supporting the things they claim to hate, i.e., Iran Contra involving drug selling for arms by anti-communist right-wing organizations such as Western Goals Foundation of John K. Singlaub and Oliver North. Fun Fact: This deep-state heroin dealing was reference in the film, Lethal Weapon (1987).

It sounds strange. It sounds like the ramblings of another lost male musing in cyberspace. But, it’s not. It’s my personal belief, based on comparisons to history, that it’s all rigged. I suspect that the dynamite is being laid by a powerful cabal of people, to instigate the big fight between the major powers, just so a new order equivalent to that which arose after World War 2 can rise. I can see a future where China is Balkanized but not destroyed, because that’s not in the game-plan. The game-plan is to integrate a capitalist and democratic China, or “Chinas” divided along ethnic lines, into the Global economy via the Belt and Road project, which would then give globalism a major push across the finish line of a de-facto world government. A democratic capitalist China, just imagine. The consumption, spending, building, and waste such as that found in the American Way of Life. Do we really think that international banks from Goldman Sachs, UBS, Deutsche Bank, HBSC, ING, Softbank, Mistubishi Bank, Royal Bank of Scotland, add Russian, Chinese banks too, and the list goes on, don’t want endless profits and immense global power? Multi-national companies have no allegiance to a country, but only profits, and economic nationalism might preserve a culture, but it will also put that culture at the detriment of other culture’s who “play the game” of innovation on the constant quests of profits. In other words, all of this is inevitable, a sign of human social evolution.

Or is it? Do we really think that Donald Trump or people in his camp don’t know of Prince’s work with Frontier Services Group? Of course most typical Republicans would never see this because they don’t want to. They’re lost in a sense of nostalgic fading white fear based America.

The issue with all of this is that it needs lies to sustain itself for top-cover as paid actors, i.e., top politicians at the services of banks and think-tanks like the Council of Foreign Policy or Trilateral Commission, have to put on a show of global conflict, which does require that people die. The world is ran like a mafia network of factions, and despite “street level goons” getting into turf wars, behind the scenes the top brass or Dons are in cahoots. Fighting wars for example isn’t always as simply as nationalist propaganda but it’s a matter of fighting for concessions or to create a new order by making it appear that it all seem like a simplistic us versus them scenario. Nations such as Germany and Japan knew they didn’t have the resources to win a victory, though they made up for it with innovation and cruelty, but a part of starting the wars was to carve out space in the new order that would later come. It’s arguable that parties in Japan and Germany had ties to the West before the war and WW2 was largely true, but there’s also a shadowy behind the scene agenda which is hard to make out. Many Nazis wanted to negotiate with the Allies, almost is if they knew the game went too far, but Hitler knowing he was betrayed by people in the West (Cliveden Set. Note: Hitler was a fan of Cecil Rhodes, the British Imperialist, namesake for the Rhodes Scholarship and Rhodesia, who worked for DeBeers Diamonds which was a Rothschild financed company), to keep fighting on.

Germany was fighting a war which couldn’t be won and the only reason to think it had the gall to fight such as war is that many in the Nazi elite though they had support from outside of Germany. The goal seems to have been the implementation of fascism, which was one of the Big Three democratic theoretical models which found support within the West, and the Nazi elite thought they had support for fascism under Hitler within the USA and UK, considering there was Anglo-American support prior to Germany’s invasions of its neighbors, such as the well-known relationships with the Koch Family, Watson Family of IBM, Coca-Cola, Henry Ford, the British Cliveden Set, the Imperial Fascist League of Arnold Leese, the British Union of Fascist under Oswald Mosley (where the BUF has the support of Lord Rothermere who will be discussed later), the American Bund (known for its infamous Madison Square Guard rally in 1939), and even the support of Hollywood through studios such as MGM which was owned by Russian Jew, Louis B. Mayer. Mayer would later become a staunch Republican, especially as the Neoconservative movement rose (which was highly Jewish), and oversaw the McCarthy Red Scare Witch Hunts of actors led by a young Ronald Reagan (later of Bohemian Grove with Richard Nixon). The Hollywood connections to Hitler can be found The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler by Ben Urwand (2013), by the Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

The resultant damage to Germany due to Hitler, allowed the powers to carve the world in half during the Cold War, which soon thereafter morphed into the Middle Eastern conflicts regarding oil, the establishment of OPEC, etc. It seems the Cold War in part was a way to carve the Earth in half, manage the populations of Earth under two dialectical economic opposites, but also control energy prices via a cabal of international companies and banks. There was tension between the USA and USSR, of course, but also instances where the truth was revealed, such as (1) the revelation of the Cambridge Five scandal that included Kim Philby, where five British intelligence officers were caught sharing information with the Soviet Union, (2) The US USSR Esalen Institute Exchanges in the early nineteen-eighties, and (3) the fact that Chase Bank under David Rockefeller, the heir to the Standard Oil Dynasty, and with close ties to the OSS (CIA), opened a bank office in Communist Russia in the nineteen-seventies. This was when the Cold War was still on overdrive, despite it being after the Cuban Missile Crisis. Since, they couldn’t talk directly, otherwise the entire global order would fall, certain nations such as Israel and India have a history of being back-doors between the USSR and USA.

A Soviet stamp with British Intelligence Officer, Kim Philby
The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler by Ben Urwand (2013) by the Harvard Press

People like Stalin and Hitler didn’t simply rise from the ashes, but were possibly pulled from the gutters or scouted to play a role, though they were able to control their respective mob faction accordingly to keep the “game alive”.

Speaking to the unfolding One Belt One Road Initiative, if you add, the eventual inclusion of digital currency (in theory the IMF has the power to print money or sanction money), in the wake of the US dollar falling as the world’s reserve currency (though I’m sure it will still be a respectable currency similar to how the Pound was to the Dollar), then not only do we have a world of larger economic blocs, but we have a common world currency. Many developing nations prefer crypto-currency because its more accessible than US dollars, and they’re already used to chaotic currencies. The world will thus be smaller and more interconnected via a technotronic model akin to Zbigniew Brzezinski’s “In Between Two Ages” (digital money, digital payment systems able to be cancelled if a person gets out of line, surveillance states, etc.) with international bodies for governorship – either existing as is, i.e., the United Nations, World Bank, IMF, Interpol, or, shifting to new bodies in places such as Israel (some consider the center of the world).

An excerpt from Zbigniew Brzezinski’s The Grand Chessboard

Think about it this way, Trump and the MAGA Camp, which is full of not only white-identity politics apologist and Jewish Zionists, has tried repeatedly to improve relations with Russia, despite Russia under the “esoteric guidance” of Aleksandr Dugin wanting to expand former Soviet territory lost after the Cold War. Russia also has deep relations with China with China being their main creditor and Russia being China’s main natural gas supplier. So, by Trump trying to be get cozy with Russia, in essence he’s getting cozy with China, and the fact that Erik Price is working with Frontier Services Group on the Belt and Road Project – despite Trump’s economic sanctions – indicates that Trump, in theory is supporting Sino-Russian relations, which gives Israel leverage due to its international Chabad networks in Moscow, the USA, etc. Is Trump simply another chaos agent laying the dynamite underneath the facade of America First patriotism, hypnotizing the white majority of the US in its never-ending Culture War? Smoke and mirrors?

The Belt and Road Initiative map by the Mercator Institute of Chinese Studies
Map of Eurasia showing the trade network of the Radhanites (in blue), c. 870, as reported in the account of ibn Khordadbeh in the Book of Roads and Kingdoms. Other trade routes of the period shown in purple.  The Radhanites  (also Radanites, Arabic: الرذنية‎, romanized:  ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval merchants, some of Jewish origin. Only a limited number of primary sources use the term, and it remains unclear whether they referred to a specific guild, or to a clan, or generically to Jewish merchants in the trans-Eurasian trade network. Jewish merchants operated in trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds during the early Middle Ages (approximately 500–1000). Many trade routes previously established under the Roman Empire continued to function during that period – largely through their efforts. Their trade network covered much of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and parts of India and China

Add, to this that Russia and China have close economic ties regarding Central Asia, i.e., The Grand Chessboard as stated by Zbigniew Brzezinski, via the Belt and Road Project, yet, Israel has close ties to both Sino-Russian relations and US-UK (Anglo-American) relations. Despite, being the smallest actor in this unfolding game, Israel oddly has leveraged its size to play a larger role in such as plausible new global order. For example, Israel via religion can play the Old Testament card, i.e., Judeo-Christian, but also can play into End Times prophecy revelation in which many Evangelical Christians believe in, hence, why Islam has been put at odds against Christendom. As the game unfolds, I noticed one similarity between all the major players of Russia, China, the USA, and Israel. This is they all have Muslims in their shooting sights, e.g., the Chechens of Russia, the Uyghurs of China, the Palestinians with Israel, and the Americans which every nation, save Saudi Arabia, though Saudi Arabia is an actor in the global already. Further, Israel can spread a global religion called Noahide, particularly in developing nations, which is a Christian form of Israel worship. Many Noahide Laws have been implemented already without the general public even knowing such as Trump’s staunch Zionist rhetoric.

A map of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Far East in Russia the borders China. Near the Belt and Road Initiative. If the project sees manifests itself, in theory, this would give the Chabad Lubavitch community quite a bit of economic power, considering Israel is on the Mediterranean coast and the JAO is near China.
“There are, however, some Chinese renting land in places like the Jewish Autonomous Region, where Chinese farmers are tenants on up to 80% of the land in the tiny province. At the same time, these farmers are the only mass producers of vegetables and grains for the local market, so it’s a win-win situation wherein Russian residents of the region benefit from lower prices for agricultural products, and the Chinese farmers can export the surplus.” (Gabuev & Greg, 2016)

On the other hand, China is Russia’s largest creditor (apart from Cyprus, which acts as an offshore money center for round-trip investment into the Russian economy). Russia has become the largest supplier of oil to China over the last three months, bumping Saudi Arabia from the top spot. (Gabuev & Greg, 2016)

So while there are some developments that might be the beginning of something bigger, more mature, and more ambitious, the end result will still be asymmetrical as long as Russia clearly needs China much more than China needs Russia. China has a diversified economy, including multiple sources of hydrocarbons, and therefore Russia is definitely the dependent partner. (Gabuev & Greg, 2016)

Regarding the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Andrei Muchnik (2017) stated, “The so-called Red Zion was established in the 1930s as a Soviet alternative to British Mandatory Palestine. The first official Jewish entity managed to attract a fair few prominent Jews in its heyday – including Yiddish poet Peretz Markish. The settlers didn’t come only from the Soviet Union, but also from such far-flung places as Argentina and Mandatory Palestine itself. Further, describing Stalin’s reason for creating the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Muchnik (2017) states, another reason was an attempt to try to cozy up to overseas Jews and attract investment. It was also intended to connect the Trans-Siberian Railroad and Amur River Valley. The Chabad.org Staff (2017) stated, “Rejecting the “bourgeoisie nationalism” of the Zionist movement—with its focus on the land of Israel—the Soviet government pushed this remote section of Siberia on the Chinese border as an alternative Zion, where working Jews from all over the world could freely settle and make an honest living working the land.”

Gabuev & Greg (2016) of the Carnegie Moscow Center, stated, “There are, however, some Chinese renting land in places like the Jewish Autonomous Region, where Chinese farmers are tenants on up to 80% of the land in the tiny province. At the same time, these farmers are the only mass producers of vegetables and grains for the local market, so it’s a win-win situation wherein Russian residents of the region benefit from lower prices for agricultural products, and the Chinese farmers can export the surplus.”. Regarding the JAO’s relationship to Belt and Road project, Junya, Yue, Hao, & Bingqing (2018), stated, “As part of it, two cross-border bridges to be completed in 2019 will link China’s Heilongjiang Province with Russia’s Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Amur region, while two international transport corridors are under construction in the Primorsky Territory.”. Further, Junya, et al (2018), states, “In fact, China has become the Russian Far East’s biggest investment source. Primorsky’s capital and port Vladivostok is now home to many Chinese enterprises. In particular, China’s northeastern provinces, known as the “rust belt,” are too looking to bilateral cooperation in securing easy access to seaports and reviving their economies. Agriculture and transborder logistics are currently the two leading sectors in China-Russia cooperation in the Far East.”.

A picture of Aleksandr Dugin’s grand Eurasian ideology
The Second Warsaw Pact written by Orson Scott Card in Shadow of the Hegemon. This pact ominously reflects Putin’s and Dugin’s strategy of Eurasianism for expanding former Soviet power to areas lost after the Cold War. Promoting anti-NATO, ant-Western sentiments is a cornerstone of Russian psychological operations within the West which was been absorbed into the American Right Wing via pundits such as Alex Jones. Jones’ disinformation war keeps the light off the Trump administration in its attempt to link with Russia, even as far as the Trump administration’s treason regarding the Ukraine.
Card writes about the Second Warsaw Pact which is Russian expanding its borders back to Soviet heights with the help of China, thus, this fictional pact by Card reflects real-world Sino-Russian relations. While Russia and China coordinate over Eurasia (with Israelis in the mix), Russia is conducting psychological operations into the West via the American Right Wing such as extremists such as Lauren Southern, Alex Jones, Red Ice TV, etc.

“As if this vat redrawing of the world’s map were not enough, Russia announced that it had joined China as its ally, and that it considered the nations of eastern Europe that were not loyal members of the New Warsaw Pact to be provinces in rebellion. Without firing a shot, Russia was able, simply by promising not to be as dreadful an overlord as China, to rewrite the Warsaw Pact until it was more or less the constitution of an empire that included all of Europe east of Germany, Austria, and Italy in the south, and east of Sweden and Norway in the north” (Shadow of the Hegemon, Card, p. 428, para. 2)

“The weary nations of western Europe were quick to “welcome” and “discipline” that Russia would bring to Europe, and Russia was immediately given full membership in the European Community. Because Russia now controlled the votes of more than half the members of that community, it would require constant tug of war to keep some semblance of independence, and rather than play that game, Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and Portugal left the European Community. But even they took great pains to assure the Russian bear that this was purely over economic issues and they really welcomed this renewed Russian interest in the West” (Shadow of the Hegemon, Card, p. 428)

“Indeed, the only force that stood firm against China and Russia while facing them across heavily defended borders were the Muslim nations. Iran generously forgot how threateningly Pakistani troops had loom along their borders in the month before India’s fall, and Arabs joined with Turks in Muslim solidarity against any Russian encroachment across the Caucus into the vast steppes of central Asia. No one seriously thought that Muslim military might could stand for long against a serious attack from China, and Russia was only scarcely less dangerous, but the Muslims laid aside their grievances, trusted in Allah, and kept their bodies bristling with the warning that this nestle would be hard to grasp.” (Shadow of the Hegemon, Card, p. 428-429, para. 4)

“What Bean saw as the driving force of history, however, was the resurgent Russian Empire. Where the Chinese simply took for granted that they were and should be the center of the universe, the Russians, led by a series of ambitious demagogues and authoritarian generals, felt that history had cheated them out of their rightful place, century after century, and it was time for that to end” (Ender’s Shadow, Card, p. 400, para. 2)
“It was Russia that forced the creation of the of the New Warsaw Pact, bringing its effective borders back to the peak of Soviet power – and beyond, for this Greece was its ally, and an intimidated Turkey was neutralized. Europe was on the verge of being neutralized, the Russian dram of hegemony from Pacific to the Atlantic at last within reach” (Ender’s Shadow, Card, p. 400, para. 2)
The Russo-Anglo-American Alliance was stated by Robert Heinlein in 1959. It is oddly similar to Brexit under Boris Johnson, Trump with MAGA, and Right Wing Russia with Putin. You can add Jair Bolsanaro of Brazil if you were to draw Right Wing Latin American themes from the film adaption by Paul Verhoeven (1997), e.g., the film takes places in Buenos Aires in the future which was inspired by real-world Euro-Latin fascism after WW2 (Nazi Rat Lines, Right Wing Dictators often of German or Italian heritage). The Cold War after WW2 relating to Latin America was largely dictated by Neoconservatives. Neoconservatives actually got their start from Jewish Trotsky followers who joined the GOP which explained the Jewish domination of Neo-conservatism in this era. Barry Goldwater, Milton Friedman, Henry Kissinger, etc. All of these leaders are committed Zionists.

Heinlein has odd connections to Jack Parsons, thus Alaister Crowley, but also L. Ron Hubbard via the Manana Literary Society. Heinlein’s political ideology meshes Marxism and Libertarian ideologies, i.e., it merges dialectical opposites into a Platonic society of Citizens and Civilians. Heinlein when he was a Marxist supported the Social Credit, which is Universal Basic Income. Heinlein later turned Right Wing Libertarian in response to the Nuclear Cold War, yet, he postulated a world that merged both socialism and Libertarian ideology. Both Marxism and Libertarian ideology come from a common democratic origin in the Renaissance and later in the factions during the French Revolution as the Jacobin movement fractured. This fracturing of the Jacobin movement into Girondins and Montagnards, where reflected in Masonic Clubs. The British and Americans via the Grand Lodge of England, York and Scottish Rites, took on the Girondin model of private property which later evolved into monopoly capitalsm, while the Montagnards took on Marxism via the Grand Lodge of France.

Does anyone think it’s strange that Rex Tillerson with Exxon Mobil, i.e., Standard Oil of the Rockefellers, had a very cozy relationship with Vladimir Putin and Russian oil company, Rosneft? Maybe, Putin knows strategically that he’s outmatched and the Kremlin’s attempts at infiltrating the West is Russia trying to figure out which superpower it will side with during the inevitable showdown? Maybe, Putin is simply in the pockets of those who already run the world and is effectively the paid-for boogeyman, considering he has the means to make money in the West, such as with oil/natural gas with Exxon Mobil, real-estate, the Russian mob, oligarchs who own sports teams in the Premier League, or his son-in-law’s, Yuri Milner’s, investments with Facebook.

I say this because when it comes to warfare, it’s not always about fighting to win or total annihilation, but rather fighting to lose but still have enough bargaining power at the table of the new order.

Does anyone find it strange, that despite Trump’s “economic populist” rhetoric against China, that one of his close allies and donors in Erik Prince, is doing defense contractor work for Frontier Services Group, a Chinese based firm assisting with the economic juggernaut project, the Belt and Road Initiative? Or, does anyone find it odd that Steve Bannon, despite all his “patriotic rhetoric”, has close ties to Hong Kong via his days as Goldman Sachs, but also his dealings with early Bitcoin and Bitcoin pushers such as Brock Pierson. Pierson was later invited to Epstein’s Island for a science forum. All these clues are right in our faces, but the disorienting part is how they’re never connected, especially by those with the supposed intellect to do so, e.g., the mainstream media. Does anyone not find it odd that Ghislaine Maxwell’s acted with near impunity as the madam of the “elite global managerial class”, hasn’t been charged with anything, despite her father being a double if not triple-agent between the Mossad, MI5, and KGB?

We’ve been here before, haven’t we?

The same international banking interests rearranging the global landscape, so an explosion happens, so a new order, i.e., symbolic of the Phoenix, rises. The political intrigues of what occurred before World War 2 seems to be going on now, but this is “higher level strategy” above what we would see on television, lost in identity politics, zoning out to social media. In the past we know all this real-life historical oddities such as The Cliveden Set with the Astor Family and this “Sects” relationship via Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere. Rothermere was a prominent newspaper propagandist in the UK who supported the Nazis but had a relationship with Jewish-born Nazi spy Stephanie von Hohenloe. Hohenloe would later work for the OSS (CIA); The Neville Chamberlain appeasement of Hitler, which allowed him to invade Poland, and thus compel the Allies to enter the War; Josef Stalin’s early work in the old-fields owned by the French Rothschild’s, Royal Dutch Shell, and the Noble Family, as a Marxist rabble-rouser but people suspected him of being a government agent.

Was the Cold War simply a way to divide the world in half to control energy production and prices, but Marxism and Capitalism were funded by the same international banks who simply coopted and manipulated early organic and grassroots movements? Think about that, what soon unfolded after WW2 and the establishment of the Cold War order? Oil and the Middle East such as the inclusion of the Saud Family with Getty Oil, the CIA and MI5s overthrow of the Iranian government which is rich in crude oil; the fact that the British won the land of Palestine which would later become Israel, after King George and the British Rothschilds dethroned George’s cousins, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany  (thus his allies in the Ottoman Turks who controlled Palestine), but also Czar Nicholas through the Bolshevik Revolution; the fact that Marxism was financed by Engels, who was the heir to a wealthy Anglo-British industrial company; the Bronfman Family’s (NXVIUM) relation to the Lehman Family, i.e., Lehman Brothers investment house, and the Morgenthau Family. Henry Morgenthau Jr., was the United States Secretary of the Treasury under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who shaped the Lend-Lease Program, support for China in WW2, and proposing the Morgenthau Plan, with the latter being the plan to destroy German military capacity but this was seized by the Nazis to keep fighting on; the OSS and US Army Counterintelligence Agency’s faux trials of Nazi War Criminals just to absorb them into the new West Germany intelligence apparatus and US nuclear research program, which included Reinhard Gehlen of Gehlen Organization – the precursor to the modern German BND; we all know about Mossad’s work with Otto Sorkzeny, Hitler’s favorite commando to take out Egyptian nuclear scientists, but also the fact that there many Nazis with Jewish blood. Would Israel not exist without Nazis?

Stephanie Von Hohenlohe was Jewish and a Nazi Spy. Is it possible, she was working both sides, offering communication between Hitler and his supposed Anglo-American contacts such as the Cliveden Set, just to betray Hitler (which was always the goal) so Israel would be created after the war?
2003 Colby Award Winner, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: The untold story of Nazi racial laws and the men of Jewish descent in the German Military by Bryan Mark Rigg. Rigg received his B.A. with honors from Yale University and his Ph.D. in history from Cambridge University. He served as a volunteer in the Israeli army and as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps. The book was cited by the New York Times, “Rigg has turned up an unexplored and confounding in the history of the Holocasut” (Warren Hoge).

Regarding, the Nazi connection it is well-known that the US used Nazi scientists for weapon’s research. However, JD Salinger was actually one of the people charged to hunt down these Nazis when he was attached the US Army’s Counterintelligence Command. Salinger had a nervous breakdown and checked himself into a mental hospital in Germany which was being ran by a Nazi in hiding. Even though Salinger is included within many conspiracy theories, it is my suspicion that Salinger and his magnum opus, A Catcher in the Rye, was an analogy about his time in Germany in World War 2, and the cynicism he felt when he learned the truth that the Allies were recruiting Nazis. It is my suspicion that Salinger’s use of the word phonies by the story’s protagonist, Holden Caulfield, was a jab at Army and OSS top-brass. Salinger’s Jewish identity was thus called into question, i.e., he has a severe existential crisis, knowing that he was in part assisting people who wanted to exterminate his people, and I suspect the bleakness of Holden depicted his sadness. The impact of Catcher in the Rye wasn’t some “mind control” story as alleged, but rather it was a story inspired by true events that touched upon the most extreme fringes of Western existentialism and nihilism, juxtaposed by the innocence of youth, and this in part sparked a social revolution. The copy-cat violence of some readers inspired by Catcher in the Rye was a social phenomenon similar – allegedly – to that of the Sorrow of Young Werther, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, which started a string of copy-cat suicides. Eberhard Alsen (2018), through the University of Wisconsin Press, published, J.D. Salinger and the Nazis, provided an objective analysis of claims relating to JD Salinger. In many ways the book disproves many conspiracies regarding Salinger, and instead shows him as a Jewish-American man with an identity-crisis, i.e., to be Jewish or to be a man of the West, a.ka., an All American guy indifferent to Zionism, who found himself doing lowly enlisted Intel work (never becoming in Officer) but possibly came upon a higher truth as he hunted Nazis that was too much to bare.

“The US Army’s Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency falsified the political and employment records of Braun and his team of engineers so they could continue their work on ballistic missiles for the United States. In short, the US Army deliberately hoodwinked the president” (Alsen, 2018, p.118).

 “While the Army resettled (Werner von) Braun and over fifteen hundred other whitewashed Nazis in the United States to do weapons research, Salinger was expected to track down lesser Nazis in Germany so they could be denazified. This double standard must have reinforced Salinger’s negative opinion of the US Army leadership and confirmed his opinion that his job as a Nazi hunter was a ridiculous waste of time” (Alsen, 2018, p.118).

Before I move on from from Salinger, I just want to state that Salinger was a part of the Ritchie Boys, who were a predominately Jewish group of US troopers who were recruited for their German language skills. They were used for interrogation of Nazi prisoners. One, notable member of the Ritchie Boys as Henry Kissinger who would take over as Secretary of State, overseeing the right-wing overthrows of many democracies, and also was a part of the Neoconservative movement which was largely Jewish and/or Trotsky followers who joined the GOP. For example, Trotsky’s notion of international revolution would be absorbed into the US military apparatus under the guise of freedom, and instead of a worker’s revolution, instead it was replaces with spreading democracy, i.e., constant war for the war-machine. This period of time also saw a young Israel find itself becoming cozy with US foreign policy due to its strategic location but also the possibility that many neoconservatives were Jewish and this was a part of the plan to prop up and fund Israel. The Necons later tapped into Evangelical Christianity to further deepen ties with Israel in the political-right which is known for being more patriotic and willing to use military force.

Even though, Salinger isn’t vital to this paper, his CIC link is notable in that it was brought up in a CIA Archived piece, titled, Cold War Allies: The Origins of CIA’s Relationship with Ukrainian Nationalists, by Kevin C. Ruffner (1998). In this article it went into detail about how the SSU (Strategic Services Unit), i.e., the OSS and later CIA, recruited Ukrainian nationalists to form emirges, i.e., cells, to help fight Communism in the West. Frank Wisner of the CIA had a close professional relationship with Kim Philby of the Cambridge Five Double-Spy Scandal. In the article by Ruffner (1998) it was stated that Wisner backed his conclusions for the setting up cells based on information drawn from the CIC, which is where Salinger worked. So, there was a relationship with the CIA and the CIA, and the CIA in certain cases had contacts with moles who had contact with the Soviets; however, I’m not drawing a clear straight connection here, but rather its a case of degrees of separation in a very confusing spy landscape of Cold War, i.e., no one knew who to trust. I’ll share some quotes from Ruffner (1998) below:

“The Strategic Services Unit (SSU), the successor to the wartime Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, and the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency learned about anti-Soviet Ukrainian resistance movements that continued after the war in Western Europe” (Ruffner, 1998)

“Boleslav A. Holtsmann, SSU’s X-2 (Counter-Intelligence) representative in Munich, became the primary American contacts with Ukrainian leaders in the American Zone in Germany” (Ruffner, 1998)

“There were some setbacks between this collaboration of the SSU and Ukrainian emigres. SSU Director, William Quinn, wanted more research into the Ukrainian factions before they could become CIA Assets” (Ruffner, 1998)

“Ukrainians had served in the German Army and had been linked to Nazi atrocities on the Eastern Front” (Ruffner, 1998)

“Zsolt Aradi, a Hungarian consultant within the SSU, was instrumental in establishing American intelligence contacts with the Ukrainians. Aradi had written the Ukrainian nationalist movement for the SSU in October 1946, and used his ties with Ukrainian church officials and the Vatican to meet emirge leaders in Germany” (Ruffner, 1998)

Russian President Vladimir Putin (R), Chief Rabbi of Russia Berel Lazar (L) and Russia’s Jewish Communities Federation President Alexander Boroda (C) attend a ceremony marking moving the Schneerson library at the Jewish Museum and Tolerance Centre in Moscow, Russia, 13 June 2013. Chief Rabbi of Russia Berel Lazar called the decision to transfer the disputed Jewish archive to the Jewish Museum and Tolerance Centre a ‘Solomon’s decision’ and promised to provide availability of the books to people. EPA/ALEXEY NIKOLSKY / RIA NOVOSTI / KREMLIN POOL
Boris Johnson with members of Chabad after his victory in the UK. https://www.theyeshivaworld.com/news/general/1763414/boris-johnson-wins-rce-to-become-uks-next-prime-minister.html
Trump with Chabad during National Education Day. His son-in-law, Jared Kushner is close to the Chabad community
President Barack Obama presents a ceremonial copy of the Education and Sharing Day Proclamation that he issued on March 31, 2015 to a delegation from the American Friends of Lubavitch in the Oval Office, April 27, 2015. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza) This official White House photograph is being made available only for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photograph. The photograph may not be manipulated in any way and may not be used in commercial or political materials, advertisements, emails, products, promotions that in any way suggests approval or endorsement of the President, the First Family, or the White House.

It’s interesting to note that in the Baku Oil fields, the main players were Branobel (an oil company owned by the Nobel Family – yes, the same ones who made dynamite and where the Nobel Prize gets its name from), the French Rothschild, and Royal Dutch Shell. Yet, according to Levine (2007), On 28 April 1920, the Bolsheviks seized power in Baku and Branobel’s oil business in Azerbaijan was nationalized. In May 1920, the Nobel family sold almost half the Branobel’s shares in its possession to Standard Oil of New Jersey.

So, think about that, after the Communist Revolution, the largest oil company in the world ran by the Rockefeller’s absorbed their competition, becoming even bigger. Further, the Bolshevik revolution dethroned King George’s competitor and cousin, Czar Nicholas. It sound’s like grand mafia politics of taking over territory and controlling the political landscape to spur more conflict, thus gain more control. Where did the Bolsheviks get their weapons from? Wasn’t Communism in part created by Fredrich Engels? Who was a British-German rich kid whose parents had a successful textile company. It seems that Communism was in part funded by Anglo-American and banking interests to destabilize competition and centralize resources. Yet, whenever the powers props up an actor like Stalin or Hitler, they don’t have full control of those people, so there’s a power-play between all parties. Hitler thought he had a truce with Stalin during the Ribbentrob and Molotov negotiations leading to the Molotov Pact, but the Allies and Stalin always planned on joined forces, like mobs, and carving Germany in half to start the Cold War.

  1. Erik Prince of Blackwater
  2. Israel’s Black Cube intelligence firm
  3. Prince’s work on the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative with Chinese based Frontier Services Group to jail the Uyghur people on the Western Desert, despite Prince donating to Trump and negotiating with Saudi and Emirate princes in the Seychelles (as proved in the MSM and Mueller Report)
  4. Bannon’s Goldman Sachs history with Hong Kong which included early Bitcoin, i.e., global currency, including work with Brock Pierson (accused rapist) who was at Epstein’s Island.
  5. Israel’s Sino-Russian relations from the time of Ben-Gurion and how they can profit from the Belt and Road Initiative via the Russian territory of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast;
  6. Sheldon Adelson’s (Trump Super Donor) Chinese gambling business with Macau;
  7. The Philippines crucial role in Pacific defense policy, yet, there’s a shadowy underworld of prostitution, gun running, the FBI/ATF/DOJ/Homeland Security, DOD counter-terrorism against Abu Sayyaf where the former leader of Abu Sayyaf was a veteran of the Soviet-Afghan War on the side of the Americans. The Las Vegas shooter’s Filipino connections oddly pointed the spotlight on what’s going on in the Philippines.
  8. Prince’s relationship with the conservative Council for National Policy which included his “avatar”, Major General John K Singlaub (WW2, China, The Secret War in Laos, Afghanistan, [the latter two known for Heroin), and Iran Contra) aka Right Wing PMC drug dealing to funnel guns for revolutionary forces;
  9. Similarities between Blackwater and Western Goals Foundation;
  10. Prince’s relationship with Left Behind (a Christian Right book) author Tim LeHaye thus linking Prince to the Zionist such as Jared Kushner and thus the Chabad Lubavitch community.
  11. The history of the CIA in China after WW2 before the propping up of Mao who was a bookkeeper in the Yale China missions – an organization built by Yale East Coast elite families dating back to the Old China Opium Trade (John Forbes Kerry is a descendant) which was formed to smuggle heroin out of China after the Boxer Rebellion and Nationalist backlash. The Americans muscled and won the old Heroin networks of the British Empire and French Empire, i.e., British India owned Pakistan and knew of the heroin fields of Afghanistan, where a certain region was called Kafiristan and Nuristan. Nuristan means “Land of Light”, i.e., Land of Illumination. The Americans after the Revolutionary War had already developed heroin networks with Turkey and China.
  12. and how the Hong Kong Protests might be MI5 and CIA supported considering Hong Kong is former British territory.
  13. It seems Prince might be the “chaos agent”, laying the groundwork for the “NWO”, i.e., imploding China and starting a war, just to do a strategic rebuild of China via the Belt and Road so a democratic China can be controlled by foreign global banks and multinationals.
  14. John D. Rockefeller, loved Mao, and opened banking offices in Russia and China in the 70s in the height of the Cold War.
Erik Prince could be compared strongly to Major General John K. Singluab. He headed CIA operations in postwar Manchuria during the Chinese Communist revolution, led troops in the Korean War, managed the secret war along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the Kingdom of Laos and Vietnam, worked with the Contras in Nicaragua, and Afghan resistance during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In 1979, Singlaub founded the Western Goals Foundation, a private intelligence network that was implicated for supplying weapons to the Contras during the Iran–Contra affair. According to the Special Operations Command (n.d.), “As one of a handful of Special Operations Branch personnel retained the Strategic Services Unit (successor to the OSS), Singlaub stayed in China to report on the Civil War.” So, think about that… Yale and the East Coast elite, also known as the Boston Brahmin, has a long history with China going back to Old China Trade opium dealing, but later Yale opens the Yale China Association in China and Mao Zedung has frequent contacts with this organization. The CIA was in China in the final days of WW2 and after during the confusing times of Kai-Shek versus Mao. Considering David Rockefeller opened a bank in China in the 1970s, seems to show that Mao was in part propped up by the Americans, likely as a hedge against Russia, but also to prep China for eventually inclusion into the global economy as the “totalitarian factory” of the world. Kai-Shek was propped in Tiawan as a hedge against Mao just in case he ever got too far out of line, yet, the Americans have never given full public support to Taiwan. Essentially, funding both sides of the Chinese Civil War was a way to save face that the Americans were fighting communism, but also not fighting the Communist harder, was a part of the plan to divide the world among Cold War partisan lines. China was always the goal of the globalist. Winthrop Rockefeller was the Governor of Arkansas. Another Governor of Arkansas, Bill Clinton – a Rhodes Scholar and Yale alumni – with the Walton Family would see China finally integrated into the global supply chain. The relationship was that China would vouch for the American’s exorbitant debts to fund its empire, in exchange for the Americans buying cheap Chinese products. A symbiotic relationship that kept two of the world’s strongest powers in bed with each other. I suspect the current Freedom Protests are in part a way to keep China on the globalist agenda without them venturing off to far and acting unilaterally. https://www.soc.mil/ARSOF_History/icons/singlaub.html

David Rockefeller in 1973 published the famous article in the New York Times called From a China Traveler. Rockefeller shows admiration for the Chinese country which was still under Maoist Communist ideology. Rockefeller through Chase Bank, now JP Morgan & Chase, opened one of the first American bank offices in China since the Chinese Civil War, in the nineteen-seventies. This was at a time when the United States was supposedly a staunch anti-communist advocate. Considering the vast history of the American East Coast elite in China dating back to the post-Revolutionary era of opium dealing with China, and the creation of the Yale-China Association (where Mao worked at), it seems that China was always the goal of the globalist. Rockefeller (1973) states, “One is impressed immediately by the sense of national harmony. From the loud patriotic music at the border onward, there is very real and pervasive dedication to Chairman Mao and Maoist principles. Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose.” Further, “The social experiment in China under. Chairman Mao’s leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history.” (Rockefeller, 1973). Regarding banks in China and Russia by the Rockefeller Dynasty, David Rockefeller opened one of the first Western bankers in Russia during the Cold War. According to JP Morgan Chase & Co. (2017), “In the 1970s, Chase added nearly 40 new branches, representative offices, affiliates, subsidiaries and joint ventures outside the United States, including two historic firsts in 1973: Chase opened a representative office in Moscow, the first presence for a U.S. bank in the Soviet Union since the 1920s” (p. 13).  Further, JP Morgan Chase & Co. (2017), “In 1973, Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman David Rockefeller visited China and met with Chinese Prime Minister Chou En-Lai. Chase became the first U.S. correspondent to the Bank of China since the 1949 Chinese Revolution.” (p. 13).

David Rockefeller’s “From a China Traveler” after his trip to China in the New York Times archive. The Rockefeller’s through Chase Bank would open one of the first Western banks in China after the Communist Revolution.
https://www.yalechina.org/. We have to remember that Yale has long ties to China going back to Old China Trade which were the post-Revolutionary War trading houses in China. The main commodity of choice was Opium trading, which was hurt by Chinese backlash during the Boxer Rebellion. One prominent trading house was Russell & Company, founded by Samuel Russell. Samuel Russell’s cousin was William Huntingdon Russell, who founded Skull & Bones at Yale University. Notable partners were Warren Delano, Jr., the grandfather of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who in turn had Henry Morgenthau Jr., as his Treasury Secretary. Henry Morgenthau, Jr., was the first and only Jew in the Presidential line of succession. Morgenthau is related to the Bronfman Family (NXVIUM via Sara and Claire Bronfman; Edgar Bronfman of Warner Music Group was in Jeffrey Epstein’s Black Book, and Phyllis Lambert nee Bronfman who provided bail money to murderer, Ira Einhorn) and Lehman Family of former Lehman Brothers – the firm which in part started the 2008 Financial Crisis. Another partner in Russell & Company was John Murray Forbes, an ancestors of John Forbes Kerry, the former Secretary of State.
Public information about the Yale China Association
An article showing growing Jewish and Chinese ties. Clarissa Sebag-Montefiore (2014) ” Jews likely first arrived in China via the Silk Road almost 1,000 years ago. In the mid-19th century, following the Opium Wars, Iraqi Jews settled alongside British traders in Shanghai, where many made their fortunes. China later accepted Jews taking flight from Russia, who made their homes in the bleak snowy landscapes of northern Harbin. In World War II, tens of thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany flooded Shanghai: Most left for Australia, America, or Israel when the Communists gained power in 1949.
Chinese state media has long championed positive portrayals of the Jews, in part because Judaism, with its ethnically based and non-evangelical nature, has proved less of a threat to the Communist Party than other foreign monotheistic religions, like Christianity or Islam. (China’s own Jewish population, the Kaifeng Jews, have being almost completely assimilated.) High-profile Jewish figures in the Chinese Communist Party’s own history include Sidney Rittenberg, the first American citizen to join the party, and the journalist Israel Epstein, whose funeral was attended by former Chinese President Hu Jintao and former Premier Wen Jiabao. https://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/167289/nanjing-jewish-studies
Sheldon Adelson’s Chinese casino projects stated in the Wall Street Journal
A photo of Sheldon Adelson, Trump’s super donor, with Chinese and Las Vegas casino holdings
Examples of Russian psychological operations into the West and many are through Zionist outlets such as Rebel Media, which once employed racist Lauren Southern. Southern went to Russia to interview Dugin. Also, Jay Dyer, an Orthodox convert, sometimes called the “Redneck Socrates”, constantly pushes Anti-Western conspiracy yet refuses to objectively analyze anything coming from Russia.
Another example of Russian infiltration into the United States. Relating back to Jay Dyer’s Orthodoxy and his interview with Dugin, we can see a photo of Dugin with a radical sect of Russian Orthodox Church. Dugin has repeatedly spoken about the destruction of the United States and West. Other photos includes racist Richard Spencer which is his now ex-wife of Russian decent. She filed for divorce based on domestic violence accusations. The other photo is Lana Lokteff of RedIce TV who brags about Russian heritage and advocates for an ethno-state. She also identifies as pagan, which aligns with the Russian Hyperborean movement – a movement that is a sub-sect of the Russian Cosmist movement. It is an esoteric movement that claims that life started in Russia.
Alex Jones interviewing and platforming Alexandr Dugin. The American “Alt Right” has been co-opted by Russian psychological operations.
Jones is a very suspicious character. He has ties to the Disinformation Company and was frequently hosted on the Joe Rogan Podcast. A podcast which actively showcased the Intellectual Dark Web, before Rogan and Jones had a “fall out” and the podcast went back to normal. Jones is very close with MAGA particularly Roger Stone. Jones has consistently defended Trump despite claiming being an objective “conspiracy theorist”. For such a “prominent” conspiracy theorist, Jones rarely objectively analyzes Israel, Russia, or MAGA. His strategy is to be the “Redneck talking head” to tap into paranoia within the conservative white majority to steer them away from the truth, while also weaponizing this demographic will old Republican talking tropes.
Alex Jones might have been compromised into being a die hard MAGA and Zionist supporter. His friendship with sexual adventurist Roger Stone might have been the fall of Alex Jones as he fell deeper into his own vices such as escorts and drugs. The MAGA Camp knew the power of Alex Jones over the minds of mostly conservative or right-leaning white males in the backlash to the Obama Administration. That was a powerful voice via YouTube to help push anti-left conspiracies theories, considering the Democratic establishment and Republican Establish (up until Trump) kept a pragmatic policy on Israel and Russia. Trump reversed this course of action by laying down for Israel and consistently trying to network with Russia, even at the expense of the Ukraine. The anti-UN anti-NATO rhetoric of traditional right-wing circles has been used by foreign adversaries to stir conspiracy against the United States.
Two Jewish political consultants in George Birnbaum and Arthur Finklestein helped push the George Soros conspiracy which is a staple in Right-Wing Pro-Trump conspiracies. Even Trump referenced Soros during the US crisis. But why would two Jews do such a thing which obviously pushed antisemitism? By pushing antisemitism it allows Jewish elites to play both sides. Antisemitism allows for the cracking down of free speech and investigative journalism, put it is also pushes people into the Right-Wing by blaming all the issues of the world on liberalism. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/hnsgrassegger/george-soros-conspiracy-finkelstein-birnbaum-orban-netanyahu
So, it’s not treason for Trump to get Ukraine to pull up dirt on political opponents by holding Congressionally approved arms sales from Ukraine, but Trump since then is still pandering to Vladimir Putin. Another example of the normalization of Putin’s Russia by the MAGA Camp via their favorite outlet, Fox News with a target audience of predominately white (not a crime) and elderly.
Jason Jorjani, an Iranian scholar and member of the Alt-Right via Arktos Media which he edited (and, distributed Aleksandr Dugin’s The Fourth Political Theory), was analyzed by The Intercept. Jorjani is frequently showcased on paranormal YouTube site, New Thinking Allowed with Jeremy Mishlove, whom, interestingly, is the only person with a Ph.D in Paranormal Studies from UC Berkley. This goes to show the pseudo-science roots within the Alt-Right, which has historical contexts going back as far as the Nazi Ahnenerbe on its quests to search for Aryan Origins in the Far East and Central Asia, i.e., The Grand Chessboard of Zbigniew Brzezinski. Jorjani’s Iran interests is important because it actually links to the esoteric ideology guiding Russian Neo-Nationalists such as Aleksandr Dugin. Jorjani was also interestingly linked Zionism within his Iranian studies, and Zionism is also a key aspect in Dugin’s esoteric ideology. This was provided in The Russian Cosmists (2012) by George M. Young, a professor at the University of New England. The Intercept article can be found at https://theintercept.com/2018/03/18/alt-right-jason-jorjani/
Jason Reza Jorjani speaking about…IQ testing of embryos… on New Thinking Allowed with Jeffrey Mishlove. Paranormal studies are a part of the Far Right and always has been. It is typically linked to Grand Origin Story theories used to justify warfare and expansionism, e.g., the Nazis looking for Far Eastern roots was a justification to push East to the resource rich areas, or, Russia’s attempt at Grand Origin mythology such as Hyperborea myths creates a justification for expanded operations in Central Asia and aligns with Dugin’s Eurasianism ideology.
Jason Reza Jorjani speaking about Zionism’s roots in Iranian. Think about that… Zionism, i.e., Jewish. Russian esoteric thinkers link Russian with Iran. The strong connection of Chabad in Russia, the USA, and Israel. Russia’s relation with China on the Belt and Road, plus Israel’s ability to profit from the project in Israel and the far East with the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Or, the fact that there’s many Jews in the MAGA Administration which is linked or associated with the concept of White Supremacy, which thus echoes back to research does by Bryan Mark Riggs in “Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers” (2002). There’s a deeper level of strategy and playing both sides going on.
A great book by George M. Young that goes into roots of Russian Cosmists

“George Vendasky, for example, sees Russian pre-Christian pagan religion as a development from both Zoroastrianism and Mithraism. And Aleksandr Dugin and other current Russian neo-Eurasianists and neonationalists point to ancient Russia’s religious and cultural kinship with ancient Iran to support their calls for a new Russo-Iranian Eurasian continental alliance to counter NATO power and culture”. (p. 83, Young, 2012).

“The ancient Iranians, to whom Fedorov believes the Slavs are related, were continental rather than insular and peninsular in outland, land tillers rather than land seekers, and in their close relationship to the earth recognized that life is won only by constant struggle against nature. Evil, for the Zendo-Slavic peoples, is not an inescapable condition of existence, as in India, but can be overcome by concerted human effort.” (pg. 83, Young, 2012).

George Vendasky, for example, sees Russian pre-Christian pagan religion as a development from both Zoroastrianism and Mithraism. And Aleksandr Dugin and other current Russian neo-Eurasianists and neonationalists point to ancient Russia’s religious and cultural kinship with ancient Iran to support their calls for a new Russo-Iranian Eurasian continental alliance to counter NATO power and culture”. (p. 83)

“Fedorov viewed Russian culture as a continuation of ancient Aryan Iran, a combination of Eastern and Western principles, struggling against a hostile natural environment, wary of Greco-Roman power to the west and Turan to the East. Similarly, Gumilev views Russia as an absorber and continuation of the great steppe powers of ancient Eurasia, different from and strong than both Western Europe and eastern Asia. For Gumilev, the Mongol invasion by Genghis Khan was not a curse but a blessing for Russia, saving the entire Eurasian heartland from the aggressive clutches of the Catholic West, then presented by Poland and the Baltic Teutonic Knights. Under the khans, Russian Orthodox spirituality was tolerated and allowed to mature, whereas medieval Orthodox spirituality would’ve been crushed under the heels of Teutonic Knights, and the Eurasian heartland would eventually have become simply an extended version of the European spiritual and political battleground of Catholics versus Protestants.” (p. 228)

“In recent times, Gumilev’s theories have proved especially useful to Russian neonationalists, neo-Eurasianists and other with an anti-Western, anti-Atlanticist political bias, the most prominent of whom is the ideologist, Alexander Dugin – and, some might add, Vladimir Putin.” (p. 228)


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