(I wrote a letter to Congress that was ignored) Revising forms relating to questions involving cannabis and how cannabis is a force-multiplier for National Security by Quinton Mitchell


Revising policies and forms, such as AF Form 2030 Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificates (or equal) and Standard Form 86 Background Investigation Questionnaire (or equal), relating to questions about cannabis use asked by the federal government (notably the Department of Defense, Office of Personnel Management, etc.) and its contractors.

Providing supporting arguments for how cannabis revenues are a force-multiplier that supports National Security.

Uncovering possible racial disparity in grants of Security Clearances.

Short Title: Revising forms relating to questions involving cannabis and how cannabis is a force-multiplier for National Security

Quinton M. Mitchell, Asc. Applied Science, B.A., M.S., USAF (Honorably Separated)


Contractor in this letter is meant to be any business, corporation, self-proprietor, etc., who has received federal funds, thus creating a legal contract between contractor and government, to perform work, services, construction, and/or to provide equipment or materials to the Federal Government, and/or any business, corporation, self-proprietor, etc., who is a part of the Federal Procurement Data Systems (FPDS) and/or registered or having been registered in systems such as the Systems for Award Management (SAM.gov), Central Contractor Registration (CCR), Online Representations and Certification Application (ORCA), etc.

Marijuana or Cannabis (genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae) used throughout this letter are meant to be interchangeable but also include any other word or variant of Marijuana such as Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Salvia, CBD (Cannabidiol), Pot, Hemp, Hash, Hashish, Kief, Keef, Ganja, etc.



Definitions                                                                                                                                                      1

Images & Figures                                                                                                                                           1

Keywords                                                                                                                                                        1

Methodology                                                                                                                                                  1

Abstract & Highlights                                                                                                                                    2

Forward                                                                                                                                                          4

Introduction                                                                                                                                                    4

Disclaimer                                                                                                                                                       5

Purpose                                                                                                                                                           5

Section I – Revising Forms and Policies Relating to Marijuana Questions, etc.                                         5

Section II – The State Argument, Increases in Cannabis Lobbying, Decreases in Prison Lobbying          10

Section III – Our Canadian Allies                                                                                                                12

Section IV – Veteran Support of Cannabis                                                                                                   13

Section V – Current Pro-Cannabis Legislation & Section 528 of the NDAA FY20                                   14

Section VI – Other Supporting Arguments (the right to not Self-Incriminate)                                         16

Section VII – Possible hypocrisies Section                                                                                                  16

Section VIII – Cannabis a Force Multiplier, National Guard Argument                                                     19

Section IX – Welfare Argument                                                                                                                   24

Section X – Ideas and Arguments Continued                                                                           24                    

24 Section XI – Race and Civil Rights                                                                                                             26 

Images & Figures:

Figure 1 – AF Form 2030 Section II Question Relating to Marijuana ………………………. p. 6

Figure 2 – SF 86 Section 23 Question Relating to Marijuana……………………… …………p. 8

Figure 3 – Center for Responsive Politics estimates of Pro-Cannabis Lobbying Funds….…. p. 11

Figure 4 – Section 528 of the National Defense Reauthorization Act……………………….. p. 15

Figure 5 – Washington State’s Liquor and Cannabis Board Annual Fiscal Report (2019) ….. p. 21

Figure 6 – Governor Inslee’s 2019-2021 Proposed Biennial Budget …………………………p. 22

Figure 7 – Use of Marijuana Between Blacks and Whites for Ages 12+ (2018) …….………. p. 27

Figure 8 – Marijuana Arrests by the Numbers…………………………………………..……p. 27

Figure 9 – States with Highest Black Arrests Rate for Marijuana Possession (2018) ………p. 29

Keywords: reform, marijuana, military, defense, security, justice, disparity

Methodology: This paper uses a qualitative approach of searching various online sources for supporting facts, but also utilizes quantitative data pulled from publications, reports, etc.

Abstract & Highlights:

  1. There is no value added in asking for use of marijuana not attached to criminal convictions such as on AF Force Form 2030 Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificates (or equal across the Service Branches), relating to entry or re-entry into the Armed Services, seeking employment with a federal contractor (such as those attached to the Department of Defense), or when a recruit/employee/potential employee either of the federal government or a federal contractor is seeking a Security Clearance (Standard Form 86).
  2. There might exist a disparity regarding rejection of Security Clearances between minorities and white federal employees, contractors, and military service members, relating to criminally charged marijuana offenses or admission of marijuana use not attached to criminal charges. White Americans report a higher lifetime use of marijuana, but black people make up a higher percentage of arrests cases (ACLU, 2020) and this disparity can lead to rejection of security clearances/loss of employment/rejection of employment, thus resulting in lower levels of minority representation, which thus violates the vision of the Civil Rights Act despite many states finding marijuana to be a commodity with economic, medicinal, and therapeutic properties. My claim is supported by a Department of the Air Force Inspector General (DAF IG) Report (December 2020), titled: Report of Inquiry (S8918P) -Independent Racial Disparity Review (No. S8918P).
  3. Pro-Marijuana Lobbying Funding saw an estimated increase of 16,357.1% from 2011 to 2020, meaning supporting Pro-Marijuana policies is great for re-election campaigns.
  4. According to Pew Research, Americans favor cannabis legalization at 67% (Daniller, 2019).
  5. In states where marijuana is legal and taxed, these marijuana taxes might be funding the Total Force Structure of the United States military, thus making marijuana revenues a force multiplier for National Security, such as construction/infrastructure projects funded by state-accounts or social programs (e.g., educational programs which produce component recruits or officers, facilities used by Active Duty Troops utilizing Tuition Assistance, or educational facilities which house Reserve Officer Training Corps, i.e., ROTC units), which directly & indirectly supports the overall Department of Defense. State National Guard Units are de-facto a part of the federal military due to the Montgomery Amendment, because of Perpich v. Department of Defense, 496 U.S. 334 (1990). Taxation of state legal cannabis is having a positive economic and social effect on the military despite the military’s antiquated stance on marijuana.
  6. Marijuana offers the potential to be a positive external variable towards force multiplication that can help pay for military equipment, etc., where force multiplication is defined in Joint Publication (JP) 3-05.1 (published 26 April 2007) as a capability that, when added to and employed by a combat force, significantly increases the combat potential of that force, and thus enhances the probability of successful mission accomplishment (p. 394).
    1. US States such as Washington State collected a total of $395.5 million in legal marijuana income and license fees in fiscal year 2019 up from 2018 numbers (Washington State Treasury, 2020). California has possibly generated $1 Billion since January 2018 (Staggs, 2020). Wall Street analysts estimate cannabis could become an $85 billion industry by 2030 (Business Insider Prime, 2020).
    2. When thinking about aircraft for example when compared to Washington State’s 2019 fiscal year cannabis revenues of $395.5 million.
      1. The F-35A by Lockheed Martin – the most common variant of the weapon system – has/will have a cost of $82.4 million in 2020, $79.17 million in 2021 and $77.9 million in 2022 (Stone, 2019). Dividing WA State Marijuana Revenues by the F-35A cost, we get 4.79 aircraft (FY20), 4.89 aircraft (FY21), and 5.07 aircraft (FY22). In other words, 4 aircraft with $65.1 Million remaining FY20 (.79 or 79% of 1 aircraft cost is the remaining value), 4 aircraft with $73.36 Million remaining in FY21 (.89 or 89% of 1 aircraft cost is the remaining value), 5 aircraft with $5.54 Million remaining in FY22 (.07 or 7% 1 aircraft cost is the remaining value). That is 13 theoretical F-35A aircraft, or (1) F-35A squadron (12 aircraft is a squadron) plus one funded by marijuana tax revenues. Total residual (remaining) balance across the three fiscal years is $144 Million ($48 Million per year), which can lead to additional aircraft purchases, spare part Purchase Orders, sustainment contracts, calibration/maintenance, fueling, training, etc. Granted this is theoretical since most of the marijuana tax revenues goes to education, public health, law enforcement (ironic), etc. However, it is possible that marijuana tax revenue can support the military mission, particularly with Federal Fiscal concerns relating to the debt ceiling, risk of sequestration (government shutdowns, compensation payments to contractors), etc. Essentially the states raising revenue from marijuana for the public good is a cost savings to the Federal government since the states might ask for less money from agencies such as the Department of Education, Health and Human Services, Department of Justice, the Department of Defense, etc.
      2. Interestingly, according to Losey (2020) of the Air Force Times, the State of Oregon where marijuana is fully legal, two bases in Oregon — Kingsley Field and Portland Air National Guard Base — will be among the first to host the F-15EX, the updated and upgraded version of the Strike Eagle now under production. Losey (2020) also states that Jacksonville Air National Guard Base in Florida will receive the F-35A in 2024, the guard said in an Aug. 14 release (end quote). Florida has decriminalized marijuana for medicinal purposes.
  7. There is no substantial evidence that use of marijuana makes it harder for military recruits or people wishing re-entry into the Armed Forces from learning their job specialty, nor is there any evidence proving that use of marijuana not connected with criminal charges or connected with criminal charges possess a security risk, since moderate or casual alcohol use has no proof of increasing security risks. Troops are tested at MEPs, randomly tested while serving, and in lockdown during Basic Military Training.
  8. Waivers for Marijuana use not attached to criminal convictions should not be needed and the requirement for waivers connected to criminal charges tied to marijuana use, should be loosened, especially if a member with charges was charged in a state where marijuana is now legal.
  9. Many states including our largest states have legal marijuana, and these states hold strong Electoral College and Popular Vote power.

Forward: I understand that making bills is not an easy task, but the idea which I am presenting and arguing for in this letter/paper, I feel should follow the strategy of the successful passage of Section 528 within the current year National Defense Authorization Act (in which I feel Section 528 does not do enough but it is a great step in the right direction). I understand that bills must be drafted, be recommended to committees, may require Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimates, be voted for upon the floor, and then be passed by the United Senates before signature by the President (although, if he or she doesn’t sign within 10 days of receipt and Congress does not “sine die”, i.e., for good, adjourn prior to the 10-day limit, the bill becomes law, alleviating the “pocket veto” scenario, i.e., the bill was on his or her desk, while Congress was open, thus the bill becomes law after 10 days). However, I do know that certain sections of laws do not seem to require as much groundwork to be inserted into legislation.

Also, with soon-to-be out of office, President Donald J. Trump, vetoing the upcoming NDAA, this might be a convenient time to insert my idea. If not, my idea could also influence an Executive Order of the upcoming Biden Harris Administration while the legislative process works itself out. Yet, with the Supreme Court majority conservative, the time to act is now. Yet, I think I have a good idea and make decent arguments. For example, marijuana is a cash commodity that helps states generate tax revenues which goes to public works, education, law enforcement, etc., and in direct and indirect ways, legal marijuana tax revenues are supporting the Total Force Structure of the US Department of Defense (Federal Force, State National Guard, etc.). Further, since our laws create disparity among the races and ethnicities of the United States, I feel that the current federal criminalization of marijuana has led to increased administrative burdens since waivers are required for military entry/re-entry, but also possible disparities in the granting of Security Clearances.

Disclaimer: I respect you. I respect our country. I respect authority. I respect the military. Yet, I also consider myself a Progressive. I am a Progressive Veteran and Patriot. I support unwavering defense for the USA and its allies, but I believe in progressive social policy, inclusion, diversity, and welfare that enables people to have a fair shot. So, nothing in this is letter/paper is intended to be perceived as a personal attack to you at all.   

Purpose: I am writing you this letter to offer what I consider is a good idea which should be easy to pass until more legislation on progressive policies on marijuana are passed or an Executive Order reflecting pro-marijuana policies is signed by the President. My idea is inspired to (A) continue to support our Government and its Armed Forces (and its prime contractors) by ensuring we have a large selection pool of diverse people with a “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy concerning marijuana use not attached to criminal convictions for new recruits, members who wish to seek re-entry to the Armed forces, or external/internal applicants of federal contractors, thus not requiring waivers and not requiring admissions of use not attached to criminal charges on Federal Background Checks, (B) to reform recruiting/hiring policies relating to marijuana use not attached to criminal charges, (C) to show how marijuana tax revenues are a force multiplier that helps National Defense and Security, and (D) to hopefully raise the current minimum in Section 528 of the current NDAA so that more than one criminal charge for marijuana use isn’t a disqualifier for entry or re-entry into the Armed Services.

Section I – Revising Forms and Policies Relating to Marijuana Questions on the SF86, etc. I feel that Congress should pass an amendment or bill, or, the Executive Branch should sign an Executive Order until legislation is signed (or bring back Coles Memo of the Obama Administration with new caveats based on points I am presenting), which will revise military forms, e.g., Air Force Form 2030 Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificate (and any equivalent forms among military Sister Branches, including the United States Coast Guard which falls under Homeland Security, the U.S Merchant Marines under the Department of the Navy & Department of Transportation, etc.); revise questionnaires regarding questions asking about marijuana use not attached to criminal convictions; revise recruiting questions regarding marijuana use not attached to criminal convictions that are given either verbally, electronically, and/or written either by contractors working for recruiters, i.e., call center personnel, or actual recruiters/volunteer recruiters of the Armed Services, and revise questions asked on SF86 Background Investigation Questionnaires OMB No. 32006 0005 (or equal), so that only criminal convictions relating to marijuana is asked rather than the current policy of simply asking for “use”.

Figure 1 – AF Form 2030 Section II Question Relating to Marijuana

As you can see above in AF Form 2030, AF Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificate, Section II, the question asks for “use not attached to criminal charges”, but instead states, “have you ever used or experimented with marijuana?”, yet, it has a caveat stating, “prior marijuana use is not a disqualifying for enlistment or appointment, unless you are determined to be a chronic user or psychologically dependent….”, and further it states, “Preservice marijuana use may render you ineligible for certain skills.”.

The question should be revised to only state, “Do you have any criminal convictions related to marijuana, please do not state use not attached to documented criminal charges.”, and there should be special instructions for recruits who are from/have lived in States or municipalities where marijuana is legal and/or decriminalized.

Further, it states a person can be disqualified if determined to be a chronic user or psychologically dependent, which to me seems subjective, because how the Air Force determines this is not stated in the form; studies to determine if marijuana is an addictive substance that is somehow worst than legal Schedule II or III drugs are debatable or non-existent due to federal restrictions on further studies; many States have legalized marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes (some of our largest states as far as population, Electoral College Power, economic output, etc.), and most Americans favor cannabis legalization at 67% (Daniller, 2019) meaning the general public deems marijuana to be acceptable.  

Further, the statement “Preservice marijuana use may render your ineligible for certain skills”, is an “interesting” statement to put into the form. This question seems to dissuade recruits and seems to state that the Department of Defense is not entirely confident in its abilities to reshape and reform individuals who come from diverse backgrounds, unique life situations, etc. Even if there are limited peer-reviewed studies relating to the effects of chronic marijuana use which might insinuate fractions of a percentage loss in IQ levels, the thing is that the military requires aptitude testing prior to even going to MEPS (Medical Examination Processing Stations) and Basic Training such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), Officer Aptitude Rating Test (OAR Test) of the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and United States Coast Guard, or the AFOQT (Air Force Officer Qualification Test). Thus, cannabis use – not attached to criminal charges or attached to charges – cannot realistically be used to disqualify a person from a certain job specialty when the military gauges mental competency with the ASVAB (or equivalent), and even if the military were to make the argument that cannabis has long-term detrimental cognitive side-effects, the Federal Government has limited the possibilities of expanded research, and the same arguments could be made for environment, educational funding, poverty, income level, etc. Yet, we rightfully do not disqualify candidates because of economic origins, income levels, if they were born in an area with underfunded schools, etc.

When a recruit attends Basic Military Training (BMT), Basic Combat Training (BCT), Officer Candidate School (OCS), Officer Training School (OTS), or equivalent, recruits are often not learning any skills related to their future job skill or specialty. Rather, they are undergoing intensive physical training and learning basic military culture and protocol.

According to Military.com (2019), the timespans of military trainings are 9 weeks (2 months and 1 week) for the US Army, 10 weeks for the US Air Force (it was 8 weeks but an additional 2 weeks were added on), the US Navy is 8 Weeks (technically 7 weeks but it includes an additional week, typically referred to in military culture as Zero Week), the US Marine Corps is 12 Weeks (3 months, not including 4-days of in-processing time), and the US Coast Guard is 7.5 Weeks (a little less than 2 months).

These training times do not include the date a recruit or candidate seeking entry goes to MEPS (Military Examination Processing Station) and travels to Basic Military Training (or equal), etc. So, for 2-months to 3-months, plus the time from MEPS to Training, the recruit is not learning a skill attached to their MOS (Military Occupational Specialty Code) for the US Army and US Marine Corps, AFSC (Air Force Specialty Code) for the United States Air Force or Space Force, or Job Category as Listed in Rating Systems in the case of the US Navy or US Coast Guard.

Basic Military Training (or equal) is effectively a time for rehabilitation and to insinuate that use of marijuana not attached to criminal charges or even attached to criminal charges, especially when recruits are tested for aptitude prior to going to Basic Training, will somehow make a recruit ineligible for a skill is debatable, and it is on the Service Branches to justify with evidence and proof of such a claim. The statement provided in the AF Form 2030 (or equal) seems highly subjective, judgmental, biased, and grandfathered into the present day. For example, the stigma around marijuana is being dictated by older people in higher ranks, e.g., roughly 30% in 1989 supported legal cannabis versus 67% support for legal cannabis in 2019 (Daniller, 2019), in which marijuana was demonized or turned into a drug of caricature, i.e., Cheech and Chong culture, Dazed and Confused imagery, etc. Further, there could possibly be a sense of generational disdain or envy considering older generations who typically see younger generations as “weaker”, might simply be barring access to entry because of their own personal beliefs/experiences which are not backed by science, facts, and the current political realities of the day, but rather propaganda attached to political agendas.   While in BMT, I can attest that I did not drink caffeine (which is a stimulant with addictive properties, and is a Schedule III drug that is common for workers, troops, etc., to assist with job performance, studying, etc.), had little to no sugar (no Gatorade, juice, etc.), was forbade from tobacco, etc. BMT was a total mind and body restructuring, so to assume that previous marijuana use either attached or not attached to criminal charges, somehow makes a person ineligible for entry and unable to learn a job specialty is highly debatable. Our Canadian allies permit marijuana use with pilots included (Burns, 2018). I am not saying that US troops should be smoking marijuana (until policy can change after laws are reformed), but forms such as the AF Form 2030 Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificate need to be reformed based on the logic I am presenting.

Figure 2 – SF 86 Section 23 Question Relating to Marijuana for Federal Background Checks

Above you can see the question within the Standard Form 86 (SF86) which is the Federal Background Check or Investigation Questionnaire, which can be found online at (https://nbib.opm.gov/e-qip-background-investigations/) and this form is used for granting Security Clearances. Since marijuana (cannabis) is legal and/or decriminalized in many states, cities, municipalities, and even allied nations to the United States, asking for “use not attached to criminal charges” has no value.

For example, what about Canadian troops (our allies going back as far as the World Wars in which Canada under Major General Rod Keller bravely sacrificed themselves at Juno Beach to achieve Allied objectives at Normandy) who are currently permitted to use marijuana (which is good policy in my opinion), happened to work on a Joint Force effort with the United States, but they require a Security Clearances and Canada defends the sovereign rights of its own citizens?

Regardless, what is one really gaining from knowing a person has used marijuana, especially when it is not attached to criminal charges? Criminally charged use of marijuana might help make better Security Clearance determinations, for any array of reasons (which in themselves could be argued as debatable), because it could insinuate a problem with law enforcement or criminal activity with a gang (which in many communities people are forced to be in as a means of surviving), but if there is no recorded criminal use for marijuana, which restated is legal in many places (some of the most economically powerful places in the United States who also have strong military/federal presences), then this question has no value. I can understand keeping the other drugs on the questionnaire (until policy reform occurs), yet, for marijuana which is helping to fund the public good (education, infrastructure, law enforcement, etc.), it is time to reform or remove this question. There is no proof to my knowledge of someone smoking marijuana becoming a security risk, no different than legal alcohol used moderately as not posing a risk. A Myers-Briggs personality test might have better insight as to whether a person “will spill the beans”, rather than asking for use of a substance that many states find to be acceptable.

Powell (2020) of the Harvard Gazette interviewed Kevin Hill, associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and director of the Division of Addiction Psychiatry at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and regarding marijuana (cannabis), he stated, “It’s less addictive than alcohol, less addictive than opioids, but just because it’s less addictive doesn’t mean that it’s not addictive.” Further. Dr. Hill in the Powell (2020) interview in the Harvard Gazette stated, “Schedule 1 really means two things. Number one, does it have addictive potential? Cannabis does, clearly. But it also means that there is no medical value. I think you are hard-pressed at this point to say that cannabis and cannabinoids have no medical value. So, I do not think it should be a Schedule 1 substance and changing that really would make it a lot easier to study. Funding is a bigger barrier.”

Further, a question asking for marijuana use not attached to criminal charges, especially when many states – some of our most economically dynamic states and largest as far as population – deem marijuana to be legal and socially acceptable, when the Department of Defense, Office of Personnel Management, etc., asks a person about use not attached to criminal charges, yet, makes determinations about a person which insinuates they are possibly a criminal, this seems a violation of Constitutional Rights of a person. The Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution allows people to not self-incriminate themselves and further parts of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) has similar protections, so asking for use of marijuana not attached to criminal charges, especially when a person who is seeking entry into the military (when they will be tested anyways at MEPs and randomly and/or routinely while in service), re-entry into the military, or seeking employment with a federal contractor (especially if the position requires a Security Clearance), seems a casual violation of a person’s privacy and their ability to not self-incriminate under The United States Constitution. I repeat this is only for marijuana because the many of the States have expressed legality of the drug.

Section II – The State Argument, Increases in Cannabis Lobbying, Decreases in Prison Lobbying

I am only saying marijuana largely since as a nation founded on federalism (a balance between centralized and decentralized authorities, i.e., the Federal Government and States), which is a reason why we have Representatives and Senators, marijuana is fully legal (decriminalized) in more than a dozen states and growing. Currently only six (6) states have marijuana as fully illegal (criminalized), i.e., only 12% of the States. According to DISA Global Solutions (2020), fifteen (15) states (and the District of Columbia where our laws are created & the where the Pentagon is housed) have full decriminalization for recreational and medicinal use (end quote). Guam and the Northern Marina Islands also have full legalization for recreational use. Additionally, out of these 15 states, California has 55 Electoral College votes, New York has 29 Electoral College Votes, Illinois has 20 Electoral College Votes, Michigan has 16 Electoral College Votes, and states such as Nevada and Arizona helped to swing the 2020 Presidential Election, insinuating the momentum for marijuana legalization is gaining more traction.

Even the states with mixed approaches such as Pennsylvania (20 Electoral College Votes) and even the conservative-leaning state of Georgia (16 Electoral College Votes. Note: The City of Atlanta decriminalized under one ounce of cannabis, Source: Hawkins Spizman Trial Lawyers, n.d.) are playing a major role in current 2020 politics, with Georgia going so far as resulting in two Congressional Senate Run-Off elections, meaning in the case of The State of Georgia (an agricultural state), that voting for conservative anti-marijuana politicians is no longer a given, i.e., times are changing. Many of these states are the largest economies of our nation and they hold most of the electoral college votes and provide the bulk of the popular vote due to population, e.g., California (39,512,223 people est.), Florida (21,477,737 people est.), New York (19,453,561 people est.), Illinois (12,671,821 people est.), etc. Thus, the politicians who support marijuana reform, have a higher chance of re-election for a multitude of reasons.

In 2011 according to the Center for Responsive Politics (2020), pro-cannabis lobbying was only a marginal $35,000.00 USD but in 2020 it was estimated the total of pro-cannabis lobbying investments increased to $5,760,000.00 USD, which is a 16,357.1% increase. When compared to lobbying funds for controversial private prisons, according to Center for Responsive Politics (2020), in 2019 total spend was estimated at $4.3 Million and $3.2 Million in 2020. CoreCivic Group contributed $1,310,000.00, GEO Group contributed $1,100,000 etc., to politicians for private prisons (Center for Responsive Politics, 2020). In these Center for Responsive Politics (2020) findings, 19 out of 20 reported politicians (Donald Trump included as well as Georgia Senator David Perdue who is facing a Senate run-off election race) accepted funds from private prisons. 19 politicians were Republicans with only 1 being Democrat (from the State of Texas).

Figure 3 – Center for Responsive Politics estimates of Pro-Cannabis Lobbying Funds

Despite the unfortunate existence of private prisons, the 2020 estimated lobbying donations for this industry amount to $3.2 Million which is 44% less than the $5.76 Million that went to the cannabis industry in 2020. This means that it is less lucrative to take money from an industry (prisons) which tries to further enrich itself by arresting/fining people (resulting in loss of employment, displacement, increased risks of disease and STD transmission, strain on single parents, and inflated costs in poorly audited and administered contracts), than it is to support a growing industry of marijuana which produces jobs, taxes, reduces black market crime, etc. Supporting marijuana is pragmatic, progressive and realist politics.   

My idea can be quite simple to do and have bipartisan support, e.g., leveraging Republican support from former House Speaker and House Minority Leader John Boehner, who currently is chair of the National Cannabis Roundtable, an organization which spent $428,000 on pro-cannabis lobbying efforts in Fiscal Year 2020 (Center for Responsive Politics, 2020.). Also, there is former Republican Governor of Massachusetts Bill Weld who sits on Acreage Holding’s board with John Boehner which is a marijuana investment company which has helped create jobs in Flint, Michigan, according to Breana Noble, Detroit Times (2018). Current Republicans in Congress who supported cannabis legalization are Matt Gaetz (Fla.) — the only GOP co-sponsor on the MORE Act —, Denver Riggleman (Va.) who stated he voted for it because his brother was jailed for a marijuana offense, Don Young (Alaska), Tom McClintock (Calif.) and Brian Mast (Fla.) according to Julie-Grace Brufke (2020) of The Hill. There are also more Republicans as well (see page 17, para 2).

Section III – Our Canadian Allies

Further, our neighbor to the North in Canada, which is a NATO (North American Treaty Organization), NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command), Five Eyes Partner (intelligence gathering) and AFNORTH/USNORTHCOM member, has full legalization of cannabis across the board and Canadian cannabis firms can be sold on stock exchanges such as Toronto Stock Exchange (which can be sold legally in the United States on exchanges such as E-Trade, owned by Morgan Stanley, by way of the Over-the-Counter Market). On October 17, 2018, Canada passed Bill C-45, which made recreational use of marijuana (cannabis) totally legal (Kestler-D’Amours, 2018). Relating to passage of Canada’s Bill C-45, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau established a Task Force to pave the way for cannabis legalization and used US States such as Colorado and Washington State as a model (Kestler-D’Amours, 2018).  

Think about that, Canada, our military ally, a member of the prestigious NATO Alliance, legalized weed by basing their policy on Washington State and Colorado’s pro-cannabis policies, and these US States have a strong military presence ranging from Joint Base Fort Lewis – McChord (JBLM); Camp Murray National Guard Center; Fairchild Air Force Base; Everett Naval Base; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island; Bremerton Naval Base and Submarine Base; the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS); Fort Carson; Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station; Peterson Air Force Base (Home to the US Space Command, i.e., the predecessor of the newly created United States Space Force); Schriever Air Force Base and Buckley Air Force Base.

 Relating to Peterson-Schriever Garrison (P-S GAR) in Colorado (where cannabis is legal), the United States Space Command (formerly the United States Air Force Space Command) operates Geographically Separated Units (GSUs) such as New Boston Air (Space) Force Station in New Hampshire (where cannabis is decriminalized); Cape Code Air (Space) Force Station (where in Massachusetts, cannabis is fully legal for both recreational and medicinal purposes); Kaena Point Air (Space) Force Station (where in Hawaii marijuana is decriminalized in a mixed approach); Clear Air (Space) Force Station (where in Alaska, marijuana is fully decriminalized) [Clear Air Force (Space) Station also houses Royal Canadian Air Force Units, where Canadian forces are legally allowed to use marijuana], and Cavalier Air (Space) Force Station (where in North Dakota, cannabis is decriminalized and able to be used for medicinal purposes), etc.

Burns (2018) wrote an article about how the Government of Canada (or, Gouvernement du Canada in French) issued a directive, Defence (the British/Canadian spelling) Administrative Orders and Directives (DAOD) – 9000, which permits Canadian military service members to use marijuana, i.e., cannabis. Under the new policy, members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) will be prohibited from using recreational cannabis within eight hours of a duty shift, and within 24 hours of work that involves operating weapons or vehicles (Burns, 2018). Cannabis use will additionally be barred within 28 days of duty that includes service on a military aircraft, operation in a hyperbaric environment, or high-altitude parachuting (Burns, 2018). Somewhat understandably, service members will not be allowed to use recreational cannabis during work hours or carry it with them on international operations, either (Burns, 2018). Effectively, Canadian troops are safely allowed to use marijuana within the time stipulations listed above but most likely in the safe zone while on leave or Rest and Relaxation (R&R), so they do not violate the time minimums listed above. 

IV. Veteran Support of Cannabis

According to the Veterans Cannabis Project (n.d.), 34 States Allow Medical Marijuana, 83% of Veterans support Medical Marijuana Programs, yet 0% of Veteran Administration facilities provide medical cannabis (though HR712 or the separate MORE Act might and should correct this fact).

Further, According to DiGiovanni (2018) decorated veterans are supporting the legalization of marijuana efforts such as retired Lieutenant Colonel Todd Scattini, i.e., The Hemp Colonel, who is a United States West Point Academy graduate, and is the current CEO of Harvest 360 and the European representative of CW Hemp. According to the article by the DiGiovanni (2018) on the Veterans Cannabis Project’s website, Scattini served in combat arms roles, including Tank & Scout platoon leader and Cavalry troop commander. His language skills and passion for foreign service led to positions overseas, including at the US Embassies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Slovenia (DiGiovanni, 2018). But it was his assignment in 2011, as a senior advisor to the commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, that opened his eyes to the both the opportunity of hemp and the healing power of medical cannabis (DiGiovanni, 2018).

V. Current Pro-Cannabis Legislation & Section 528 of the NDAA FY20

Current pro-cannabis legalization laws of recent that I have read into are the SAFE Banking Act (S. 1200), sponsored by Senator Jeff Merkley (D-Oregon), which strives to improve safety for cannabis businesses, employees, and consumers by prohibiting a federal banking regulator from penalizing a depository institution for providing banking services to a legitimate marijuana-related business (Status: Senate – 04/11/2019 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs); Small Business Tax Equity Act (H.R.1118 & S.422), sponsored by Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon) which would allow compliant, tax-paying cannabis businesses to deduct normal business expenses and access tax credits that are available to other lawful businesses (Status: Senate – 02/07/2019 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance); Marijuana Justice Act (S. 597 & H.R. 1456), sponsored by Representative Barbara Lee (D-California-13th District) strives to remove marijuana from the list of controlled substances and expunging the convictions of those who have served federal time for marijuana use and possession offenses (Status: House – 04/08/2019 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security); Realizing Equitable & Sustainable Participation in Emerging Cannabis Trades (RESPECT) Resolution (H.Res.163), sponsored by Representative Barbara Lee (D-California-13th District), offers best practices and recommended steps for states and localities to reduce financial barriers to entry relating to cannabis businesses, eliminate constrained licensing frameworks that perpetuate disadvantages relating to cannabis businesses, encourages automated expungement and resentencing for prior cannabis offenses (Status: House – 03/25/2019 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security); Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act (H.R. 3884. S. 2227), sponsored by Representative Jerrold Nadler (D-NY-10th District), is bipartisan legislation that removes marijuana from the Controlled Substances Act, thus decriminalizing the substance at the federal level and enabling states to set their own policies (Status: Senate – 12/07/2020 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance), and HR712 VA (Veterans Administration) Medicinal Cannabis Research Act of 2019, sponsored by Representative Luis J. Correa (D-CA-46th District) which would direct the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to carry out a clinical trial of the effects of cannabis on certain health outcomes of adults with chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder, and for other purposes (Status: House – 03/12/2020 Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by Voice Vote).  

Republicans who supported HR712 are Matt Gaetz of Florida’s 1st District, Pete King of New York’s 2nd District, Mike Waltz of Florida’s 6th District, Greg Steube of Florida’s 17th District, Don Young of Alaska (At Large), and Dave Joyce of Ohio’s 14th District.

Relating to H.R. 712, the Congressional Budget Office as ordered by the House Committee on Veteran Affairs on March 12, 2020 (The United States Congress, n.d.), issued a Cost Estimate by Ann E. Futrell on April 13, 2020. On February 1, 2019, VA began a 5-year research study at its medical center in San Diego, California, to evaluate effects of the use of medical cannabis among 136 participants with PTSD and other health conditions (Futrell, 2020). The department plans to spend $1 million to conduct the study (Futrell, 2020). CBO expects that trial would satisfy the bill’s requirement for research. Satisfying the reporting requirement would cost less than $500,000 over the 2020-2025 period, CBO estimates (Futrell, 2020). That spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds (Futrell, 2020). Ms. Futrell’s Cost Estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Director of Budget Analysis.

Further, we have 2020 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), Sec. 528. Reenlistment waivers for persons separated from the Armed Forces who commit one misdemeanor cannabis offense. This is a step in the right direction, but it does not go far enough, yet, what I am arguing in this paper is for the federal government (and its contractors) to not ask about use not attached to federal charges, but also, the minimum threshold as specified in Section 528 must be raised considering the relationship of states to the federal government.

Figure 4 – Section 528 of the National Defense Reauthorization Act

Section 528 which was helped passed by House Representative Ruben Gallego of Arizona’s 7th Congressional District (a US Marine Corps veteran who served in Iraq) is great and a proper step forward, yet I feel it doesn’t go far enough (e.g., a misdemeanor can be very marginal), because the military (and its contractors where workers often have to do SF 86 Background Investigation Questionnaires) are still asking if new recruits, former military members who wish to rejoin, or applicants for employment with federal contracts, if they have used marijuana even if it is not attached to any criminal conviction. It seems the military’s forms such AF Form 2030 or equal (and Standard Form 86 or any other agency equivalent) are still asking these statements to new recruits/members who seek re-entry, employees of federal contractors. Regarding, the military it is still requiring waivers (or possible rejections of clearances relating to contractors or troops).

VI. Other Supporting Arguments (the right to not Self-Incriminate)

Based on my ideas and evidence presented so far, the military/federal government should not be asking for marijuana use that is not attached to criminal charges, largely (but not limited to the fact) that Section 528 of the FY20 NDAA, it only speaks to convictions by a court of a competent jurisdiction. Considering that the Office of Personnel Management via its e-QIP System which does background checks for the government and its contractors, I feel the question on the SF 86 relating to marijuana use not relating to criminally convicted charges in courts of competent jurisdiction should be removed from the questionnaire since its relevance is waning. Further, people who do have criminal convictions relating to marijuana such a possession should not fear having a clearance revoked.

There does not seem to be coherent and publicly published logic that is readily available to the public and published in a way which is palpable for the general public to understand that details how the OPM or equivalent makes it security clearance determinations, thus preventing the person who may have had their clearances revoked or employment terminated, from having all the cognizant facts to utilize their constitutional right to challenge such determinations, e.g., obtain legal representation, appeal, etc.

Section VII – Possible existing hypocrisies

Further, since the vast array of questions on Background Checks can incidentally lead to subjective determinations, many good people have possibly suffered simply because of human bias which is not an exceptional look for the Federal Government; however, I am sure investigators do their jobs to the best of their abilities. For example, if a highly paid non-elected GS Civil Servant has had three DUIs, missed alimony payments, has domestic dispute charges, has had frequent travel outside of the United States, and has a higher debt-to-asset ratio (insinuating higher risk of financial default, i.e., bankruptcy), but they get to keep their job and/or get a Security Clearance. Why should a person, such as a recently college graduate, person who has been seeking employment, person from an underrepresented group and/or low-income area, or your average worker have to admit use of marijuana use not attached to criminal charges, when stating use not attached to criminal convictions, could possibly result in getting a Security Clearance revoked, which could mean loss of employment, having to seek another internal opportunity, increased unemployment insurance registration, destitution, falling behind on bills, etc.?

That is why the SF86 must be reformed. SF86 questions relating to marijuana should be changed to only ask about cannabis use for convicted charges, yet, convicted charges should not be a barrier to employment or gaining a clearance, due to 1) the general shift of perception within the public that supports legalization of cannabis, 2) there is no proof that marijuana/cannabis use leads to any sort of Security Breaches, 3) many States where it is legal have a strong federal employment and military presence, etc.I am not saying the Federal Agencies including the Department of Defense or its contractors cannot test for marijuana (until policy shifts), but rather asking for use not attached to criminal charges does not provide any value.

To reiterate, my idea is that the Department of Defense, Office of Personnel Management (who manages the SF86 Screening Process), or any other agency, or contractor to the federal government, can only ask for use for marijuana related to criminal offenses, and not just “use”. Further, recruiters, contractors who work with recruiters (such as call center staff), and the Human Resource Departments of federal contractors should be educated that they legally can only ask for criminally charged marijuana convictions and not simple use, and any statement made voluntarily of use, either in the past or present, that is not attached to a criminal conviction cannot be used against a military recruit, person who wishes to re-enter the military, or applicant to the federal government or its contractors. Further, if a person has had their record cleared, sometimes charges can still show up on background checks and such charges should not be asked for either.

Once a law, amendment to a law (or revision that expands upon Section 528), or Executive Order based on my idea is approved, I also feel it should be retroactively applied to anyone who was rejected for entry or re-entry into the military (or disqualified for a Security Clearance), or disbarred from employment either as federal civil servant or contractor, so when they try again, they do not have to say anything about use not attached to criminal convictions (even if they admitted on a previous government form), and if even they do admit use voluntarily, it does not matter, because…the military (or employer) will test you regardless upon entry or re-entry and while serving (or working) [until policy changes such as full legalization of cannabis]. It as if it did not happen.

Relating to military recruitment, there should be no requirement of a military waiver for marijuana use not attached to criminal charges and any waivers that are on record for people who admitted marijuana use not attached to criminal charges before active duty or even after active duty who wish to rejoin (regardless if they used within the inactive portion of their Military Service Obligation which aligns to Section 528 of the FY2020 National Defense Authorization Act, considering the section insinuates that waivers are only needed for “active duty”, i.e., not “inactive duty”), should be expunged immediately.

I added on, “within the inactive portion of their Military Service Obligation” is because once a person separates from active-duty service, they are not getting active-duty benefits, they typically fall under Non-Participating Inactive Reserve Status which is effectively back to Selective Service status of the general public, they receive no BAH (Housing Allowance) from the military, no BAS (Sustenance or Food Allowance) from the military, no uniform stipend from the military, perform no military Physical Tests (PT) or Fitness Tests, likely do not receive Tri-Care Health Insurance from the military, and most fall under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Administration, i.e., once you start drawing Veteran Benefits you can’t receive active-duty benefits.

Further, my idea is good, because The United States only has roughly 300 to 330 Million people; however, we have vast responsibilities covering the globe spanning Eurasia, Eastern Europe, the South China Sea, etc., where our adversaries have populations of 1 Billion and that is not including their own allies. So, to limit the candidate pool because of stigma over something that many states deem to be acceptable, same as many people serving in Congress find it to be acceptable, is simply bad policy of an antiquated time that has systemically embedded itself into negative stereotypes, mass arrests, ruined lives, administrative burdens, and ruined futures, etc.

I see no value to the military (Department of Defense), federal contractors, or the taxpayers who fund the military in asking military recruits, people who wish to seek re-entry into the military, civilian federal employees, or employees of federal contractors, if they have used marijuana, especially if it not attached to any recorded criminal conviction.

For now, the military should only care about criminal charges relating to marijuana – until Congress can reschedule cannabis in the Controlled Substances Act and/or pass legislation such as the MORE Act or equivalent – since criminal charges could possibly create liability issues, e.g., possible outstanding warrants. Criminal convictions pose more of a constraint on logistics and planning for the military, e.g., dates in which recruits can go to Basic Military Training, Officer Training/Candidate School, etc. However, even criminal convictions do not disqualify a person from service (which is good since the military can reshape lives), but simply asking for use without any criminal record has no value and should require no waiver.

Think of it as the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” regarding Marijuana use for initial entry or re-entry into the Armed Forces (or even relating to Security Clearances for troops and contractors). “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” was acceptable for decades, but we finally progressed passed that, and now it is time for marijuana, which is a commodity which is traded on stock market via the Over-the-Counter Market which is readily available on commercial exchanges such as E-Trade (owned my Morgan Stanley), taxed by states, creates jobs, reduces black-market crime and trafficking, and was legal for most of our nation’s history. In other words, The Founding Fathers and Revolutionaries had more leeway than people in 2020.

According to Booker (2018) of NPR (National Public Radio), “For the first time in what historians say could be centuries, hemp has been grown and harvested at Mount Vernon, George Washington’s historic estate. In the 1760s, Washington predicted that hemp could be a more profitable crop than tobacco and grew it across his farm. At the time, hemp was abundant in Virginia and elsewhere in the U.S. This summer, horticulturists at Mount Vernon partnered with the University of Virginia and planted hemp once again. “To bring this crop back it just really helps complete our agricultural story,” says Dean Norton, the director of horticulture at the estate. The push to bring back hemp came from a Charlottesville, Va., farmer, Brian Walden, who considers himself a “hemp patriot.””.

Regarding that fact about Mount Vernon, Virginia, i.e., George and Martha Washington’s estate, Mount Vernon is registered with the U.S. National Register of Historic Places, U.S. National Historic Landmarks, and Virginia Landmarks Register. The U.S. National Register of Historic Places is operated by the National Park Service which falls under the Department of Interior, giving further support to the fact that Federal Government does support the growth of marijuana, which in this case, has historical basis considering cannabis was legal for most of the United States’ history.

It is… useless to ask for “use” of marijuana. The military should care for criminal convictions (which is debatable in itself) for cannabis (until the United States reschedules cannabis) because A) the military should only care for use while in Active Status – emphasis on active status – due to readiness, investment, troops get paid, etc., B) the military test randomly all the time such as at MEPS and during active service C) asking for use not tied to criminal convictions encourages people to shy away from the military, and D) the trend of legalization is already here in which many states have full decriminalization for recreational and medicinal use.

Section VIII – Cannabis Revenues are a Force Multiplier and the State National Guard within the Total Force Structure (Montgomery Amendment) Argument

For example, if a person lives or has lived in a state, city, locality, municipality, etc., where cannabis (marijuana) is legal and/or decriminalized, but they end up wanting to serve the United States in the military or as a civil servant or contractor, or a former member wants to come back and serve some more, why would a person need a waiver or be asked about “use not attached to criminal convictions”, especially when many states say it is legal and these states contribute to the Total Force Structure of the Department of Defense via the National Guard?  

Part of the military is state driven; thus, part of the military is de-facto sovereign (despite the controversial Montgomery Amendment) where the State Governor is Commander-in-Chief (unless under federal orders). Many states with these National Guard Units are fine with marijuana thus meaning the Commander-in-Chief is fine with marijuana; taxes from marijuana might be directly and indirectly funding National Guard units such as roads, air strips, utilities, etc.; state marijuana tax revenues free up federal funds (less money states request from the federal government), and marijuana taxes fund social programs such as education. State marijuana tax revenues thus supports the overall Total Force Structure of the Department of Defense in direct and indirect ways.  

States that tax marijuana and distribute funds throughout their state support the Total Force Structure of the military both federally and at the state level (National Guard). Many states with legal marijuana use that money to fund educational programs such as colleges which house ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) units. Since marijuana tax revenue is going to education, this possibly increases the cognitive competencies of workers and potential recruits or service-member who wish to seek re-entry.

For example:

  1. A state might fund a community college system with marijuana tax revenues (or, by other means enabled by diverting funds from elsewhere only made possible by marijuana taxes), but a troop using Tuition Assistance might be taking classes at that facility.
  2. A state library system might be sharing resources with a military base library.
  3. A State University system by expanding construction projects produces direct benefits for ROTC units, such expanded fitness facilities, classrooms, etc. 

Further, marijuana tax revenue is going to fund law enforcement in these states and local law enforcement works in unison with the military and Military Police when it comes to legal matters such as responding to emergencies. In addition, marijuana tax revenue is going towards public health efforts which also helps to protect the military, civil servants, and workers for federal contractors. Public Health has always been a concern of the military going back as far as the military educating troops about diseases such as a Syphilis during the World Wars. By states increasing public health funding, enabling testing services, providing contraception, tracking viral outbreaks, offering clean needle exchanges, providing family planning services, etc., this provides an extra level of protection to service members, civil servants, and federal contractors.

Further, many Air National Guard Units are cohabiting with civilian airports which are used as runways, and I am confident that tax revenues from marijuana is helping to fund infrastructure which supports the State National Guard Units but also upstream to the Federal forces of the Department of Defense and Pentagon. In support of this claim, Washington State Treasury (2020), led by Duane A. Davidson who reports to Washington State’s Governor and National Guard Commander-in-Chief, Jay Inslee (Democrat), referenced statistics from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Control Board’s Fiscal Year 2019 Annual Report. Statistics provided by the Washington State Treasury (2020) included that fact that Washington State collected a total of $395.5 million in legal marijuana income and license fees in fiscal year 2019, all but $5.2 million of it from the state’s marijuana excise, or sales tax. Further Washington State Treasury (2020) stated that the report also shows that the marijuana revenues were $172 million more than that of liquor, and that the marijuana tax income of the state for fiscal year 2019 of $395.5 million grew by slightly more than $28 million from the prior fiscal year. Lastly, based on the statistics provided by the Washington State Treasurer (2020) the General Fund received $116.5 million.

Figure 5 – Washington State’s Liquor and Cannabis Board Annual Fiscal Report (2019)

Marijuana tax allocation to public services in Washington State has a positive social benefit, particularly for a state which lacks a state income tax. Relating to how Washington State distributes its revenues generated from taxation on marijuana, in RCW (Revised Code of Washington) 69.50.540, Titled: Dedicated marijuana account—Appropriations, per section (g), at the end of each fiscal year, the treasurer must transfer any amounts in the dedicated marijuana account that are not appropriated pursuant to subsection (1) of this section and this subsection (2) into the general fund. Later sections of RCW 69.50.540 states that revenues that go into the general funds are distributed to counties, cities, and towns where licensed marijuana retailers are physically located, etc.

Speaking back to the $116.5 million in Washington State’s General Fund which was funded by taxation on legal marijuana per RCW 69.50.540 Section (g), I went to Washington States Office of Financial Management which published the Governor Inslee’s 2019-2021 Proposed Biennial Budget. The Military Department (which includes the Air and Army National Guard Units of Washington State) was allocated $14.7 Million in which $5 Million goes to Shake-Alert Monitoring System for the procurement of seismic monitoring stations and global navigation satellite systems which integrates with the overall Shake-Alert System; $928,000 for Tsunami Sirens for Coast Cities which involves the procurement of sixteen (16 each) All-Hazard Alert Broadcast (AHAB) Systems; $750,000 to National Guard Wildfire Pay which pays State Active Duty Wages for service members with firefighter certifications to that of their civilian counter-parts, etc.

Figure 6 – Governor Inslee’s 2019-2021 Proposed Biennial Budget

Further, while I was searching Washington State’s Office of Financial Management’s website relating to General Fund allocations (which seems to align with marijuana tax revenues allocated through RCW 69.50.540 Section (g)), I found a document Titled: Agency Information Technology Budget Detail, authorized by RCW 43.88.092, Appendix A – IT Projects with OCIO Oversight: Completed for Fiscal Year 2018, where on page 47 of this Appendix, the Military Department (National Guard, etc.) received or will receive a new contract for Next Generation 911 (NG911) Emergency Services IP Network Re-procurement since the current CenturyLink contract is due to expire or has expired. The CenturyLink contract was a transitional system that was awarded before national-standards were implemented and the new NG911 System provides complete call-maker to call-taker Turn-Key services that meets the national standard. [Source: Washington State Office of Financial Management (2019)].

            Looking elsewhere on the Office of Financial Management’s website, I found Transportation Projects that directly tied to the U.S. Military, and we can assume that marijuana tax revenues in one shape or another directly or indirectly helps fund these projects.

For Example, per Washington State’s Office of Financial Management’s (2019) documented, titled: OFM Transportation Document 19GOV001 as developed December 10, 2018 – Hwy Mgmt. & Facilities Program (D), one project listed was the I-5 JBLM (Joint Base Lewis McChord) Corridor Improvements under Project No. M00100R.

Further, according to the Washington State Office of Financial Management (2019), on their website in a section titled, 2019-21 Governor’s proposed budgets, 2019-29 capital plan, Agency capital project detail, Military Department,  I also found National Guard construction projects issued by the Washington State Military Department based out of Camp Murray under RFP-19-GS-006 which was funded by the State Building Construction Account such as $75,000.00 going towards Project No. 40000004 (per the Office of Financial Management) for Anacortes Readiness Center Major Renovation, where the Readiness Center is a National Guard Center that was badly in need of upgrades. Per the Office of Financial Management (2019), The Anacortes Readiness Center is one of the smallest facilities in the Washington National Guard inventory. It has no female restrooms, showers, and locker rooms; lacks office space and classrooms for training purposes; has an inadequate supply room for necessary equipment; and is not ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) compliant. This project will perform predesign for an ADA compliant facility, which will add 6,000 square feet of new space; renovate offices, classrooms, the kitchen, and supply and storage areas; and create a new locker room, restrooms, and showers for female members.

            Lastly, at the Washington State Office of Financial Management (2019) 2019-21 Governor’s proposed budgets, 2019-29 capital plan, Agency capital project detail, Military Department, I found Camp Murray Building 33 Addition/Alteration funded by the State Building Construction Account funded at an amount of $1,000,000 to $4,000,000.00. Camp Murray is the National Guard Center for the Washington State National Guard and is right across I-5 from Joint Base Lewis McChord, which is a place I am familiar with since I lived in Fort Lewis and DuPont, WA as a pre-teen.  

            Looking at these projects I noticed some were listed as federal funded whereas others were listed as state funded, meaning that state marijuana tax revenues which affect the state fund (either directly, or indirectly, i.e., freed up funds from one account made possible by marijuana taxes) for construction projects might be helping to fund military infrastructure.

According to a report titled, Oregon Marijuana Tax Statistics: Accounting Information by Oregon.gov (2020), the State of Oregon as of September 2020 collected $15,765,218 of state taxes and $2,445,050 from local taxes, yet only some local marijuana taxes are collected by the state; those collected locally are not counted here. Actual state and local amounts will be known when quarterly tax returns are filed.

So, based on the report listed above, the total of marijuana tax revenues is $18,210,268.00, yet, on the same Oregon.gov website, there is another report titled, Oregon Marijuana Tax: Distribution Information, which calculated a total of $29,832,637 in which 40% went to the State School Fund, 20% Mental Health, Alcoholism, and Drug Services, Oregon State Police (15%), Oregon Health Authority, for Drug Treatment and Prevention (5%), and 20% went back to the City and Local Governments.

Staggs (2020) of the Orange County Register stated that California has raised $1 billion in cannabis tax revenue since the industry kicked into gear in January 2018, according to figures recently released by the state. The bulk of that $1.03 billion in tax money, after covering regulatory costs, has been spent on programs such as childcare for low-income families, cannabis research, public safety grants and cleaning up public lands harmed by illegal marijuana grows (Staggs, 2020). Yet, for concrete numbers, the State of California Department of Tax and Fee Administration issued a public news release by Wells (2020) which stated that total tax revenue reported by the cannabis industry is $172.7 million for 4th quarter returns due by January 31, 2020 and this does not include tax revenue collected by each jurisdiction. 

Section IX – Welfare Argument

Speaking to the Stagg (2020) article, in which he speaks of programs for low-income families, I am confident that some troops, especially lower enlisted troops, might be using State Welfare programs to help supplement income, such as WIC (Women, Infant, and Children Special Nutritional Supplemental programs), childcare support services, etc. These programs are sustaining themselves in part with marijuana tax revenues.

The data shows that during the 2018-19 school year, a third of children at DOD-run schools on military bases in the United States — more than 6,500 children — were eligible for free or reduced lunches. At one base — Georgia’s Fort Stewart — 65 percent were eligible (McFadden, Romo, & Abou-Sabe, 2019).

In 2016, the Government Accountability Office published a report recommending that the Defense Department start tracking data on service members’ and their families’ use of food assistance programs such as SNAP and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, or WIC, but aid groups and lawmakers question whether the department is collecting meaningful data (McFadden, Romo, & Abou-Sabe, 2019).

Section X – Ideas and Arguments Continued

It serves no use to ask for use of marijuana not attached to criminal convictions for new recruits, people who wish to re-enter the military, federal contractors seeking employment, federal civil servants seeking employment, etc. I do respect that the military can test while on active duty considering the importance of the mission, but it is time to progress.

Here is another argument for my idea. For example, does the military ask if you have ever had a beer or glass of wine when wanting to serve? No, they do not, even though alcoholism and social drinking are a part of military life (I grew up around it), even though the reported statistics likely do not state that, because many troops likely do not state the accurate facts for fear of having marks on their record (which might not to be actual policy) or being sent to rehabilitation, which could (even though it is not stated) influence a troop in thinking they might not be successful at promotion levels where character & social politics plays an important role in interviews at board selection committees. Does the military ask if a recruit or person who wishes to seek re-entry ever touched a person in an inappropriate manner? No, they do not, even though – lets be frank – the military does not have the best track record with assault, despite its efforts to combat it. So, we make a big deal about marijuana use not attached to criminal charges, even though prior service or out-of-service marijuana use does not create a bruised eye for the military, yet we do not ask questions or require waivers that relate to alcohol use that is not tied to criminal charges, nor does the military have means to search for improper sexual misconduct that is not reported, etc.

Regarding marijuana, there are stereotypes and stigmas, and even if there were studies, they are likely are so antiquated and outdated, that their relevancy has no sway considering such studies were most likely highly biased based on the times (such as previous times being more racist such as against African Americans and Hispanics, most notably Mexican Americans – note: Hispanic participation in the military is growing and African Americans have served in each conflict of the United States).

Further, stigma in part comes from the social change in the 1960s and 1970s in which the outcome of the Vietnam War was likely blamed in the social consciousness on drug use to hide the mismanagement of the Nixon and Johnson Administrations. The War on Drugs was arguably a strategy to quell the anti-Vietnam War and pro-Civil Rights efforts, even though the real drug culprit was opium, not marijuana, yet, ironically, for nearly two decades we had a legal opium market via prescription drugs (in which company stock were common in every-day Americans 401ks, possibly even military or government Thrift Savings Plans (TSP), i.e., the American public profited from opium addiction which is far more dangerous than marijuana).

The only reason why marijuana is considered a “gateway drug” as you know is because our policies push people to the gatekeepers, i.e., drug dealers (traditionally speaking, since many states with decriminalization efforts have functional, safe, and regulated commercial enterprises where people do not have to go into the black market for cannabis).

Even, Republicans such as former House Speaker and House Minority Leader, John Boehner is profiting from it and that is fine. Are people really going to convince me that he or people associated with him have lost Security Clearances or do not grant commission to Service Academies, or write recommendations, etc.? Presidents from both major parties have admitted using marijuana. Think about that. Our Commander-in-Chiefs have used marijuana but also ironically incarcerated others for it or have disbarred or rejected people because of marijuana. Note: I understand that politics is not easy, but still, there is the moral behind what I am saying. 

I am not stating that active-duty troops should be using marijuana until policy changes occurs (which could be modeled on the Canadian model which in itself is based in part from American States where marijuana is legal) but asking newcomers to the military, people who rotated into civilian life and wish to serve again, civil servants or employees of federal contractors, etc., if they’ve use marijuana when there is no criminal record of it is a waste of time. Time is money. Only worry about criminal charges, yet even criminal charges are debatable because of disparities along racial, ethnic, and income lines. To my analogy of alcohol or sexual content, there is plenty of abuse of alcohol at all ranks and there has been plenty of sexual predators who have slipped through the cracks who have no record, but irresponsible alcohol use and assault of any kind, but particularly that of a sexual nature, are way more of a threat than marijuana ever could be, especially since many states have made cannabis legal (and these states have Guard Units that are a part of the Total Force Structure which supports the Department of Defense).

A measure which reforms military Drug and Alcohol Abuse Certificates (or equivalent) across the Sister Service Branches of the Department of Defense for entry or re-entry into the military and which revises forms (questions asked on applications, Standard Form 86s, etc.) of Federal contractors to only ask for criminal convictions relating to marijuana until an Executive Order from the President and/or legislation from the Congress relating to legalization and/or rescheduling of marijuana to a decriminalized category is needed. The measure will reform forms and practices for the federal government and its contractors to only ask for use relating to recorded convictions, rather than asking any question relating to simple “use”. Candidates, recruits, applicants, etc., do not have to state whether they have used marijuana if not attached to criminal convictions, considering the government and many companies have robust drug testing policies.

Section XI – Race and Civil Rights

Asking for marijuana use not attached to criminal charges on forms such as AF Form 2030 Drug and Alcohol Abuse Forms (or equal across Sister Service Branches) and SF 86, are also systemically racist, even if incidental by nature, and thus violates the goals of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which has provisions such as Title VII which strives on increase minority and woman representation within government. Title VII provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 are expressed in Federal Acquisition Regulation Clause FAR 52.222-25 Affirmative Action Compliance, meaning that federal contractors must follow this clause, which further means that asking questions about marijuana use not attached to criminal charges increasingly violates the goals of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Effectively the Controlled Substance Act is hampering Civil Rights, particularly through the judicial system via policing policies, etc.

According the American Civil Liberties Union’s (ACLU) website section, titled: Marijuana Arrest by Numbers, 52% of all drug arrests in 2010 were for marijuana, and that most people that people are arresting are not kingpins but rather people with small amounts of pot (end quote).  Further, the ACLU (2020) issued a more recent report, titled: Tale of Two Countries: Racially Targeted Arrests in the Era of Marijuana Reform, which details marijuana arrests from 2010 to 2018 and examines racial disparities at the national, state, and county levels. Two key findings that I will point out in the ACLU (2020) report is that Marijuana Arrests Decreased after Legalization or Decriminalization, yet Racial Disparities in Arrests Persist Even in States That Legalized or Decriminalized Marijuana. Many of these states (which some are the whitest states in America) also have a strong military presence. For example, F.E. Warren AFB in Wyoming, Ellsworth Air Force Base in South Dakota, Hill AFB in Utah, Mountain Home AFB in Idaho, Minot or Grand Forks AFB in North Dakota, Offutt AFB in Nebraska, etc. These states in our current political environment are not immune to the national debates, especially those relating to race, so being an African American or Hispanic American (or, any minority group), it is my impression that troops of

Figure 8 – Use of Marijuana Between Blacks and Whites for Ages 12+ (2018)

color, or civil servants or federal contractors, can be singled out or targeted, thus increasing risk of judicial punishment (thus, loss of security clearances). For example, there is an intersection between Blue Lives Matters and the fringes of the Alternative Right.

There might exist a disparity regarding rejections of Security Clearances between minorities and white federal employees and military service members, relating to criminally charged marijuana offenses or admission of marijuana use not attached to criminal charges. White Americans report a higher use of marijuana over a lifetime as compared to blacks at 50.7% white versus 42.4% black (ACLU, 2020, p. 30), but black people make up a higher percentage of arrests cases and this disparity can lead to rejection of security clearances/loss of employment/rejection of employment, thus resulting in lower levels of minority representation, which thus violates the vision of the Civil Rights Act considering many states find marijuana to be a commodity with economic, medicinal, and therapeutic properties.

The ACLU (2020) issued a report titled, Tale Two Countries: Racially Targeted Arrests in the Era of Marijuana Reform, in which the ACLU presented data sourced from Uniform Crime Reporting Data (p. 15), the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, i.e., NACJD (p.15) and the US Census Bureau (p. 15) proving disparity between white versus black arrests regarding marijuana, and the findings still found a higher level of arrests for African Americans even in states where it is legal. Further, the report stated that its focus was primarily on African Americans in relation to White Americans, and per the report ,the ACLU (2020) were not able to compare marijuana for the Latin (Latinx) community since the FBI Uniform Criminal Reporting system (UCR) does not racially categorize the Latin (Latinx) community since it is comprised of different races, making it impossible to distinguish between Latinx and non-Latinx individuals in the Black and white populations arrest rates for Latinx individuals the report (ACLU, 2020, p. 11). However, the report by the ACLU (2020) does state that it is critical to continue examining the extent of racial bias in the enforcement of marijuana laws, specifically against Black and Latinx populations, but also that of Native and Indigenous populations, Arab and Middle Eastern populations, Asian populations, Pacific Islander populations, and those with multiple racial/ethnic identities (e.g., biracial populations) (p. 30).

Further, ACLU (2020) stated that The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), a federal branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, conducts nationally representative annual surveys of marijuana use over respondents’ lifetime, over the past year, and over the past month. SAMSHA survey data consistently finds that rates of ever use and recent use by race do not significantly differ between Black and white populations (ACLU, 2020, p. 31, para 2). Therefore, the wide racial disparities in marijuana possession arrest rates cannot be explained by differences in marijuana usage rates between Black and white people (ACLU, 2020, p. 31, para 2). In other words, there is something else going on.

In 2018, there were almost 700,000 marijuana arrests, which accounted for more than 43% of all drug arrests (ACLU, 2020, p 7).  In fact, in 2018, police made more marijuana arrests than for all violent crimes combined, according to the FBI. Further, it is not clear that marijuana arrests are trending down—they have actually risen in the past few years, with almost 100,000 more arrests in 2018 than 2015 (ACLU, 2020, p 7). On average, a Black person is 3.64 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though Black and white people use marijuana at similar rates (ACLU, 2020, p 7). Black people are still more likely to be arrested for possession than white people (ACLU, 2020, p 10). (See Next Page)

Figure 10 – Figure 12 within the ACLU (2020) Report (p. 33), titled: A Tale of Two Countries: Racially Targeted Arrests in the Era of Marijuana Reform.

How do the facts presented by the ACLU (2020) affect the United States Military, federal government, or government contractors, particularly relating to Security Clearances, employment, recruitment, etc.?

Dickstein (2020) of Stars and Stripes presented a story on how African American troops in the United States Air Force and Space Force are not treated the same as white troops based on a four-month investigation by the Department of the Air Force Inspector General (DAF IG), Lt. General Sami Said. Based on data presented in DAF IG Lt. General Sami Said’s 150-page report, which is careful to note that the identification of racial disparity does not automatically mean racial bias or racism is present, Dickstein (2020) extracted the below bullet-points for his Stars and Stripes article:

  1. Enlisted Black airmen and guardians were 72% more likely than whites to be punished through the Uniform Code of Military Justice or through nonjudicial punishment measures. (Dickstein, 2020).
  2. Enlisted Black airmen and guardians were 57% more likely than whites to face a court-martial. (Dickstein, 2020).
  3. Black junior enlisted Air Force and Space Force troops are twice as likely to be involuntarily discharged for misconduct than white troops. (Dickstein, 2020).
  4. Black Air Force and Space Force service members are 1.64 times more likely to be named suspects in Air Force Office of Special Investigations criminal cases than white service members. (Dickstein, 2020).
  5. Black airmen and guardians are twice as likely be apprehended by Air Force security forces than white airmen and guardians. (Dickstein, 2020).
  6. Black officers are less likely than white officers to be designated to attend professional military education courses. (Dickstein, 2020). ** Note: This bullet is interesting because it doesn’t seem attached to crime, suspicion of crime, or punishment, but rather perception regarding race, yet, the DAF IG is saying that the data doesn’t mean that there is racism?”

Looking at the report myself, although there is an up to 2% racial disparity in overall testing rate for black service members from 2015 to 2019, when broken down by rank, the numbers show black E1-E4s are underrepresented in random testing when compared to their white peers, which indicates there was no inappropriate targeting of young black enlisted members for drug testing.  Overall, this report revealed enlisted members were tested at a higher rate than officers consistently from 2015 to 2019, as depicted below (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 13).

The Inspector General Department of the Air Force (2020) states, objective investigation data from OSI and Security Forces indicate some of the disparity in NJP (Non-Judicial Punishment) results from a disparity in behavior rather than race (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 11).  Accessions data show that members who joined the service with moral waivers are more likely to receive military discipline during their time in service (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 11). Finally, the disparity in population numbers between demographic groups disproportionally impacts the RPT (Rates Per Thousand) data (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 11).  Because there are fewer black service members than white service members (ratio of about 1:5 overall and 1:13 for officers), even one additional individual disciplinary action will have a far greater impact on the RPT for black service members (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 11).

Racial disparities in military justice actions against black service members is a complex issue that has been reviewed in-depth by the Air Force Judge Advocate General’s Corps (AFJAG) (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p. 11). A 20-year analysis of Air Force NJP data and courts-martial revealed the following:  For every single year between 1999 and 2019, black Airmen were more likely to receive NJP than white service members, in terms of RPT. Black service members were 1.74 times more likely than white service members to receive NJP (Non-Judicial Punishment) and 1.60 times more likely than white service members to be court-martialed (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p.11). For every single year, black service members were more likely to face courts-martial than white service members. Black service members were court-martialed at an average RPT of 3.39, compared with white service members at an average RPT of 2.12. This data reveals that black Airmen were 60% more likely to face court-martial than white service members (The Department of the Air Force Inspector General, p.11).

The report released by the Department of the Air Force (2020), i.e., DAF IG (2020) relating to racial disparity in Air Force disciplinary action, got me thinking because the DAF IG (2020) talks about “behavior”. What are they really saying with this statement? Is this statement a sort of passive way of insinuating that African Americans have issues? And, if so, are we being sympathetic to the struggles of the African American community and its history, but also the current realities, in which there is a historic and present condition of oppression, imprisonment, laws created to explicitly target African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Indigenous Native Americans (First Peoples), etc.? However, I am not saying the Air Force is not taking the proper steps forward to address racial disparity issues, but one thing they could do is the ideas I am presenting through this paper. Also, they might have to better weigh where they are stationing troops of color by establishing some sort of index which accounts for local hate crimes, political atmosphere, demography, etc. Being a veteran of the United States Air Force, I can attest that most of my experience were positive and I received no disciplinary action (no UCMJ Court Martial, no Non-Judicial Punishments, etc.). I walked a straight line. Yet, I can also attest that the general culture of America where dealing with militarism is largely still dictated and catered to the majority (white) class of the United States. There is an intersectionality between country culture, Republicanism, YouTube military videos, trucks, guns, Soldier of Fortune culture, police, etc. In a way, militarism can be co-opted to be a force for silent white supremacy. When is the last time you have seen an authentic Hollywood blockbuster that showed minorities in a patriotic light while factoring in their pre-military living situations, the social pressures they face both external and internal, the systemic oppression external to the military, etc.?

Yet, I assume that a disparity exists because of marijuana in part, though not entirely (reducing the African American experience to marijuana would be stereotypical in itself). To my understanding, alcohol culture is very Eurocentric whereas cannabis smoking is not (though stats prove otherwise), thus, our nation’s view of alcohol is largely dictated by ethnocentrism, supremacy, etc. However, facts provided by the ACLU (2020) shows that white America consumes the same amount, if not more, cannabis than African Americans do, despite the imagery or stereotypes we see on television.

So, where is this disparity, such as that of the DAF IG (2020) coming from? Likely from a combination of factors, such as what I call “amplification”, i.e., minorities stand out, whereas the majority ironically fades into the background. The DAF IG (2020) did mention the same concept. Further, our there is our criminal justice system. Being a teenager from highly policed urban area is much different than a white teenager from a rural, exurban, or suburban environment.

This got me thinking further. Black Americans, i.e., African Americans, did not have fair voting rights for 77% of the time the United States has been in existence as an officially independent nation. In other words, African Americans were disbarred from law creation, and these laws in many ways have had negative consequences on the community, i.e., African Americans were unable to put their cultural viewpoint or how they view certain issues or substances, on the table. Transatlantic Slavery existed from the late fifteen-hundreds to the late eighteen-hundreds (not including the continuation of sharecropping policies, Jim Crow Apartheid Policies, etc.). 2020 to 1776 (Independence Day) is 244 years. 1776 to 1964 (Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed on July 2, 1964) is 188 years. 188/244 is 0.77 or 77%, i.e., African Americans did not have full Civil Rights protections for 77% of the time since the United States declared independence.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed on August 6, 1965 which means 189 years since 1776, i.e., 189/244 is 0.774 or 77.4%. African Americans did not have full Voting or Civil Rights protections for 77%-77.4% of the time the United States has officially been in existence.

The first record black African slaves were brought to what is now the United States of America, to Jamestown Colony on August 20, 1619 after being kidnapped from Angola (History Channel.com Editors, 2020).

2020 from 1619 is 401 years. 1619 to 1964 (the year the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed) is 345 years. 345/401 is .86%. 1619 to 1965 (the year the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed) is 346 years. 346/401 is 86.2%. So, the from the time the first Africans stepped foot on US soil (that is officially recorded), descendants of black African slaves have not had full civil or voting rights protections for 86-86.2% of the time from colonial America to the modern era.

1965 to 2020 is 55 years and 1964 to 2020 is 56 years. Many if not most Black Baby Boomers were born without having Civil or Voting Rights, i.e., my father was born in 1959, meaning his developmental years were formed in a segregated environment, i.e., Southern Georgia.

Think about that,86-77% of Black America’s existence, we were disenfranchised without Civil or Voting Rights protections, and by the time we had full legal protections, most of the economic wealth was already consolidated, such as during the eighteen-hundreds. From 1860 to 1900, the wealthiest 2% of American households owned more than a third (33%) of the nation’s wealth, while the top 10% owned roughly three quarters (75%) of it (Tindall & Shi, 2012, p. 589). The bottom 40% had no wealth at all (Fraser, 2015, p. 66).

So, 1619 to 1900 is 281 years and 1776 to 1900 is 124 years. 281/401 (70%) and 124/401 (30.9%), meaning that from the first time a recorded African stepped foot on what is now the United States or from the later date of American Independence, African Americans by the 1900s were excluded from wealth creation for 70% of the time, later down to 30% of the time, and it would take 64 to 65 additional years to even be granted the Civil and Voting Rights protections they were disbarred from for 86-77% of the time of the United States’ existence. 

To amplify the levels of oppression, we must realize that African Americans, according to Bennett, Martin, & Debarros (1993) of the US Census Bureau noted that in 1900, African Americans only made up 11.6% of the population (p.4), and by 1910, 90% of African Americans lived in the Southern United States (p. 4), i.e., the worst place for African Americans to live (though after the Great Migrations, the North proved it was not a good place either, and the West Coast was being settled by many ex-Confederates). Our law policy (drug policy included) is inseparable from race in this county unless we do something about it.

A population making up 11.6-13% of the United States population, has not had Voting or Civil Rights protections for 86-77% of the time the US (and its predecessor colonies) have been in existence, and further, this 11.6-13% was disbarred from the largest centralization of wealth from Founding to the Gilded Age (70-30% of the time since the Colonial Era and Independence), and the bulk of this population (90%) by the early twentieth century still lived in the American South, and on average, per the ACLU (2020) a Black person is 3.64 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though black and white people use marijuana at similar rates.

African Americans, similarly, to Hispanic Americans (which is an ethnicity with a racial spectrum, so some get labeled as “white” whereas others not), Indigenous Native Americans (First Peoples), etc., need help, though we have this notion of “we are all equal”, yet I would argue that a stark view of equality is an inequality, because a moral view of equality does not make up for the real lack of equality (structural, legal, perceptual, etc.) that exists.


A bill, amendment to a bill, rider amendment, or Executive Order should be passed which states that Federal Agencies (the Department of Defense included) should reform forms such as AF Form 2030 (or an equivalent among current or previous Sister Service Branches) and forms such as Standard Form 86 for Federal Background Checks, so that these forms only ask for marijuana use attached to criminal charges (though criminal charges for marijuana should not be ranked as a high disqualifying factor), rather than the current policy of asking for use not attached to criminal charges. This should be done immediately and applied retroactively to any person who was denied entry into the military, denied re-entry into the military, denied employment by for a civil servant position, denied employment by a federal contractor, or denied a Security Clearance regardless if for military employment, federal civilian employment, or employment within a federal contractor.


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American Civil Liberties Union. (2020). A Tale of Two Countries. Racially Targeted Arrests in the Era of Marijuana Reform https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/field_document/tale_of_two_countries_racially_targeted_arrests_in_the_era_of_marijuana_reform_revised_7.1.20_0.pdf

Baig, S. F. (2015, July 21). A fairytale visit from America’s darling. FSU News. https://eu.fsunews.com/story/life/2015/07/21/jackie-kennedy-thomasville-georgia/30458941/

Bennett, C. E., Martin, B. M., & Debarros, K. (1993, September). We the Americans: Blacks [PDF]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office on behalf of the U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics & Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/wepeople/we-1.pdf

Breana Noble, The Detroit News. (2018, November 28). Boehner-backed Acreage Holdings acquires Michigan cannabis company. The Detroit News. https://eu.detroitnews.com/story/business/2018/11/27/john-boehner-acreage-holdings-buys-michigan-marijuana-company/2126895002/

Booker, B (2018, August 23). After Centuries, Hemp Makes A Comeback at George Washington’s Home. Retrieved December 18, 2020, from  https://www.npr.org/2018/08/23/640662989/after-centuries-hemp-makes-a-comeback-at-george-washingtons-home

Brufke, J. (2020, December 4). Five Republicans vote for bill to decriminalize marijuana. The Hill. https://thehill.com/homenews/house/528806-five-republicans-vote-for-bill-to-decriminalize-marijuana

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Business Insider Prime. (2020, December 23). 6-Figure Jobs in Cannabis. https://www.businessinsider.com/bi-prime-six-figure-cannabis-jobs?international=true&r=US&IR=T

Carr, C. (2020, July 1). Rep. Gallego Fights for Smarter Reenlistment Policy on Marijuana Use. Congressman Ruben Gallego. https://rubengallego.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/rep-gallego-fights-smarter-reenlistment-policy-marijuana-use

Congress.gov. (n.d.). Text – H.R.2500 – 116th Congress (2019-2020): National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020. Congress.Gov | Library of Congress. Retrieved December 19, 2020, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/2500/text#toc-HCB3C1B110A174E4EBF7BD9BB4FF17E31

Daniller, A. (2019, November 14). Two-thirds of Americans support marijuana legalization. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/14/americans-support-marijuana-legalization/

Dickstein, C. (2020, December 21). Report: Black members of Air Force, Space Force not treated the same as white troops, services need to figure out why. Stars and Stripes. https://www.stripes.com/news/us/report-black-members-of-air-force-space-force-not-treated-the-same-as-white-troops-services-need-to-figure-out-why-1.656057

DiGiovanni, D. (2018, January 17). Veterans for Cannabis: Meet Todd Scattini, ‘The Hemp Colonel.’ Veterans Cannabis Project. https://www.vetscp.org/news/2018/1/17/veterans-for-cannabis-meet-todd-scattini-the-hemp-colonel

DISA Global Solutions. (2020, November 10). Map of Marijuana Legality by State. https://disa.com/map-of-marijuana-legality-by-state 

Fraser, S. (2015). The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power (Edition Unstated ed.). Little, Brown, and Company

Futrell, A. E. (2020, April). Congressional Budget Office, Cost Estimate: H.R. 712, a bill to direct the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to carry out a clinical trial of the effects of cannabis on certain health outcomes of adults with chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder, and for other purposes, As ordered reported by the House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs on March 12, 2020 (No. 56329). Congressional Budget Office. https://www.cbo.gov/publication/56329

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History.com Editors. (2020, August 18). First enslaved Africans arrive in Jamestown, setting the stage for slavery in North America. HISTORY. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-african-slave-ship-arrives-jamestown-colony

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Military.com. (2019, February 14). Length of Basic Training and When Will You Get Your First Paycheck. https://www.military.com/join-armed-forces/length-of-basic-training-and-your-first-paycheck.html

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Staggs, B. (2020, March 10). California passes $1 billion in cannabis tax revenue two years after launching legal market. Orange County Register. https://www.ocregister.com/2020/03/10/california-passes-1-billion-in-cannabis-tax-revenue-two-years-after-launching-legal-market/

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The Inspector General Department of the Air Force. THE SAF/IGS IRDR TEAM. (2020, December). Report of Inquiry (S8918P) -Independent Racial Disparity Review (No. S8918P). The United States Air Force. https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2453681/department-of-the-air-force-releases-findings-on-racial-disparity-review/

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Tindall, G. B., & Shi, D. E. (2012). America: A Narrative History (Brief Ninth Edition) (Vol. 2) (Brief Ninth ed., Vol. 2). W. W. Norton & Company.

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Wells, C. (2020, March 6). California Department of Tax and Fee Administration Reports Cannabis Tax Revenues for the Fourth Quarter of 2019 [Press release]. https://www.cdtfa.ca.gov/news/20-03.htm


SF 86 can be found at: https://www.opm.gov/forms/pdf_fill/sf86.pdf

AF Form 2030 can be found at: https://www.afpc.af.mil/Portals/70/documents/06_CAREER%20MANAGEMENT/06_IST/AF%20Form%202030%20w%20Instructions.pdf?ver=2018-04-30-140808-460

#research #policy #marijuana #cannabis #reform #legalization #socialjustice #cannabis #cannabisindustry #military #income #revenues #congress #politics


The NORML Foundation. 420 K Street NW, Suite 350. Washington, DC 20005. https://norml.org/

Veterans Cannabis Project. 901 7th Street, N.W. Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 2000, https://www.vetscp.org/

The NAACP. 4805 Mt. Hope Drive. Baltimore MD 21215

Cannabis Trade Federation. 1550 Larimer St. Suite 1109. Denver, CO 80202. https://www.cannabistradefederation.com/

Washington CannaBusiness Association. PO Box 9912. Seattle, WA 98109. https://www.wacannabusiness.org/

Acreage Holdings, Inc. 366 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10017

Peachtree NORML. P.O. Box 2063,. Dahlonega GA 30533. https://www.peachtreenorml.org/

Cannabis Dispensary. 5811 Canal Road. Valley View, OH 44125. Ph: (800) 456-0707. https://www.cannabisdispensarymag.com/

Dama Financial. P.O. Box 5730. South San Francisco, CA 94083. https://www.damafinancial.com/index.html

Acuant 6080 Center Drive Suite 850. Los Angeles, CA 90045. https://info.acuant.com/cannabis-dispensary

Florida Cannabis Action Network. 1375 Cypress Ave, Melbourne, FL 32935. https://flcan.org/

Can “Democratized” Adult Content Fund Domestic Terror? A clear example of white privilege and insanity.

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The “industry” since it can’t control everyone has to continue inclusion training and talks etc. Background checks, etc. I’m sure there’s many good people in the majority in that industry. It also highlights that adult content creators should be donating some of their income to progressive causes to hedge the possibility that bad actors might be using revenues for things that endanger the public.

Yet, Is democratized pornography funding parts of domestic terrorism? Maybe, Vice Media can pick up on this to do more research because I don’t have the time. Maybe if something were to come out about how a minuscule fraction of Only Fans or Camsoda or whatever are using profits to fund international or domestic terror, it would be silenced, because 1) who wants to kill the party for the millions of law-abiding people who use porn as a means of relieving stress from a world bent on “lean productivity” and hyper change, and 2) businesses won’t want their traffic hampered (governments might also like having the ability to “peek into personal behavior as well”, i.e., metadata being filtered my Mormons at NSA Utah Data Centers). The question of “Can domestic adult content fund domestic terror” isn’t out of the question, considering in earlier decades of adult content the mafia did have ties, meaning, also, that government snoops also had ties. Are we in an era where the pleasure and flashing lights of the industry has hidden the possibility that there is a small underworld where criminals (and, possibly even government agents) are involved in porn with the criminals using the easy money (relatively speaking) to fund various operations, and/or government investigators coming to investigate those criminals, yet, as we know in cases relating to “state evidence” that investigations can turn into decades long infiltration projects where the “Feds” cut deals with dangerous people on the hopes of capturing “more dangerous people”?

It would be stupid to attempt to fund domestic terror or international terror with pornography because the IP trail, payments, etc., yet, some goof balls might be tempted. However, one cannot control what one does with the money they make from employment.

Anyways, a Neo Nazi and porn actor, real name Paul Kryscuk, porn alias Pauley Harker, who has slept with women of all colors and religions (for titles such as Abuse Her, Facial Abuse, Latina Abuse, Arab Street Hookers, Ghetto Gaggers, etc., according to IAFD.com), sometimes in the most disparaging ways for fetish-oriented content, was arrested for interstate gun trafficking and for planning to murder protestors. He seems like just another idiot casualty of the post-Federal Reserve “ZOG” YouTube conspiracy universe, compounded by Ancient Alien History Channel grooming, sprinkling in some Vikings “badassery” (tying into the whole European “West is the Best” thing as a psy op) etc. Another, “conservative woke” guy who blames the Jews for everything, yet, while also having sex with Jewish women… Hm. Confusing. Not only does this event show an “anything goes” mentality regarding who is in the pornography industry (as long as you can “perform”), even though I am confident that gossip is a good way at vetting out bad actors, but it does sadly show that money takes more precedent than doing the right thing. Many people need the money (something I sympathize with); however, this article is not to shame sexual feminism or sex workers of any gender, but when our reality (paradigm – way of thinking) boils down to pure transactions, I can see how bad ideologies can feed off “the industry” (porn). But, before we got into this story, let me start with my beginning thoughts. As a disclaimer, this is not an indictment of the traditional adult entertainment industry which seems to be a very professional enterprise (finances, real estate, property, top audiovisual equipment, marketing, distribution, warehousing, costumes, hair stylists, make up, special effects, IT, website creation, award ceremonies, Halls of Fame, health testing, etc.) which has improved over time from something seedy (past tendencies of letting in drug abusers, outbreaks) into something also corporate/safe, nor a criticism of independent content creators.

His fellow performers probably had no idea about his beliefs. As far as they were concerned it was just another day at work, even though some of those days involved dog bowls, spitting in women’s faces, and general (well advanced level) jerk behavior. There’s also no way of knowing of when Mr. Harker’s beliefs changed, yet, there is the possibility he was a sociopath the entire time, living a secret life on set, but elsewhere bragging about this escapades those to want to see the collapse of civilization for some sort of “racial hierarchy paradise”. In a two party system, who do you think he voted for? Trump is the answer. Ding ding ding.

But, porn isn’t the issue. At this point of Hot Girls Wanted culture, porn seems also collegiate with schedules, testing, work, furnished apartments, chaperones etc. It’s really just some bad individuals I’m sure. Be they closeted Neo Nazis from God Knows Where (Orange County, Bakersfield, the Antelope Valley etc), to Crips or Bloods, to bikers, to even remnants of the mob, to even Zionists, or sprinkle in some Jihadist. Traditionally there’s money to be made in server hosting, pushing traffic, leasing mansions, payment systems, etc. But Only Fans has made it easier for predominately good people with some bad ones to make money.

I am not writing to judge people within sex work or kink but particularly for this paper, my focus is the pornography industry. I feel old. Sex, insecurity about sex, the alleged hipness of sexual experiences, years of bombardment of sexually charged content from 1990s wet t-shirt beer commercials, MTV Spring Break bikini dance contests hosted by Pauly Shore or Ed Lover, nineteen-eighties hair metal videos by Motely Crew with women in cages, gangster rap, to porn itself, to the punk rebelliousness of sexual feminism as it tries to achieve equality while chipping away at the “Id” of phallic patriarchy (seems like they won that war already in the West – just being honesty – I could be wrong), the existential crisis that sexually explicit content can cause – for better or worse, I prefer to say better – as it erodes and reshapes one’s preconceived notions of morality, are nothing new to me. Ok, people like to f-ck. Ok, there is a media or art form relating to sexuality to fulfill a human desire. Ok.

If anything, I am over it. There is nothing “kinky” or “he-he-he” about it. Yawn. Sex. Yawn. At this point the true “porn” is something that most people are lacking, i.e., a true human connection, stability, commitment. Yet, from the obscenest gonzo (well, what is available on Hub sites), to the most passionate plot centered porn, I feel society is so used to it that it’s not something “groundbreaking”, though I admit that being older I am trapped in my nostalgic era, i.e., I do not really follow new entertainers (I was the last generation of the DVD) and I have my “go to favorites” and favorite actresses. Typically, ladies from the nineteen nineties to the early two-thousands typically fading away after Sasha Grey (who I was not much of a fan of, to be honest, though I do value her role as a symbolic figure who really inserted the “nihilistic rebellion” of female sexuality more so into mainstream pornography, thus being a catalyst for women’s empowerment to arguable degrees).

If I am following someone new it is typically the safe (and sensual) category of the “MILF”, because I think mature women are attractive. Yet, I am a straight guy, so… I accept porn as a part of life. A public utility. The right to get off, to get a dopamine or serotonin hit, to fantasize. Though the medium is argued as crude, such as what I’m reading in Angela Carter’s The Sadien Woman and the Ideology of Pornography, there is something philosophical about porn and I am not being purposely erudite (high-brow) by staying that. You can consider the act of watching porn as a type of therapy. A mediation between self, the content, and questions pertaining of gender and society at large (not to forget all the various intersections or race, culture, income, class, etc.). I can easily see how pornography could be some topic of a French Philosopher analyzing semiotics, objects in relation to other objects and how meanings are derived, hyper-reality, etc. Don DeLillo said it best in his 1985 work, White Noise, in which he stated, if my memory is correct, “that technology is lust removed from nature”. Porn is a part of the human species. From Stone Age carvings of voluptuous women as virility fetishes found in European cave dwellings such as the Venus of Willendorf, to Japanese elaborate paintings of Geisha (awkwardly engaging in acts with squids), to Greek tapestries with women dancing with dildos, porn has always been with us and will always be. To me shame, is childish. Shame is barbaric. Shame is a way of control for people to make it appear as if their self-ascribed morality is somehow higher than that of others, or a way to even guilt trip another. The sinister impression in which mainstream media tries to push relating to pornography as something sinister in nature, something to make one feel queasy (what I call the Cohen Brother’s aura, i.e., that strange feeling you get watching their films where you feel helpless) as preconceived notions are challenged, is so tiring to me. We’ve been through this. Grow up.

I support the idea of pornography because I figure so many bodies have been thrown at the medium that to reverse course would mean to bound the species into repeating what has already been done. Every set, every actor, and every release has a story – some good, some bad. Each person has a story with some being traumatic leading to catastrophe while others are inspiring and empowering. To erase all that would be erasing our growth at articulating and understanding pornography, and thus at understanding our species in how we cognitively process sex, insecurity, fear, gender dynamics, etc. From an American standpoint we’re already at point of “being over the hump”. We’re past the Brady Bunch fear. What comes around, goes around. Rome gave way to the Dark Ages and Christendom, and that led to the modernity, and then so forth, so forth, so forth, so why erase and start over just to erase what can be learned from all that has been done? I totally reject the Puritanical view to sex (though emotions and fidelity do matter and are important) and if anything, the Puritanical unrealistic view to understanding human nature, while also not creating healthy outlets for sex (with a gender equal viewpoint), created the problems their ideological “Moral Right” descendants still preach. Yet, isn’t it ironic that the Right Wing preaches all this morality, yet, on its fringes lies a regressive, violent, fascist element, where some, as in the case of Pauley Harker engage in porn?

If anything, porn has been a tool for progressive change such as forcing reflection regarding the patriarchal ego to accept that women can willingly and voluntarily participate in acts that are contrary to one’s own moral beliefs, to showcasing the reality that people of different races have always been sexual with each other, or there is the fact that pornography is parallel to mainstream culture in that pornography’s various eras memorialize music, fashion, politics, etc. Pornography is like a cartoonish, visceral, hardcore, Precambrian mirror image of what is pent up on the surface above. It is similar to the medium of comedy in that comedy points out things that are obvious or analyzes possibilities which might not be so obvious, yet either/or, shocks the standard discourse, thus generating laughter, i.e., comedy like pornography, shocks us into our realness, hence once could say both have slight nihilistic tendencies, yet, what one calls nihilism, once can also argue as being something to nirvana (embracing impermanence, so we value our temporary time here in the living realm).

The urges that humans feel is eternal and complex. I would be lying to you if I did not state that I have not enjoyed watching pornography and I know quite a bit about it, similarly to how some people know about baseball statistics. It’s not a revolution thing to say. It’s casual sometimes, yet, a private thing. The history of porn in the USA spans from the seedy nickelodeons of the early twentieth century, to the stag films or post-war soft BDSM of Betty Paige in the forties and nineteen fifties, to New York amateur films of nineteen seventies New York, to the birth of the Hollywood-like productions of the seventies to the eighties (Deep Throat, The Devil In Miss Jones), to the invention of gonzo in the early nineties by John Stalgiano, to mid to late nineteen nineties “shock” Jerry Springer-esque Baywatch knock off exploitation genre such as that of JM Productions (always with a golem of a man bedding a double D platinum blonde model for the construction crew construct of American masculinity), to the zenith of the Golden Era with models like Jenna Jameson or Brianna Banks, to the early two-thousands Jackass-like WWE sex-competition style of porn with young women raised on Britney Spears  (the hubris of unfettered capitalism of the early Bush Era translating into the proletariat aspiring for a better life in the shadows of the Hollywood Hills and Paris Hilton), to the quasi avant-garde movement with Sasha Grey’s reading of existentialism coinciding with a generation of millennials – the first generation raised with social media – free from college and living in cities during a Recession (living their own HBO drama series), to the Alt Witchy scene of Joanna Angel, to the acceptance of BDSM after the popularity of Fifty Shades of Grey (popularizing sites such as Kink), to the full actualization of democratized pornography with the invention of Hubs, Only Fans, “Link in Bio” within Instagram pages, etc., I’ve seen it all.

It is a personal and entertaining thing that people watch for an array of reasons from dealing with stress, dealing with horniness, boredom, curiosity, etc. Yet, America does still have a childish Brady Bunch morality relating to it, which is hypocritical considering the “mainstream economy” has used sexuality to push products for the capitalist machine. If anything conservatism is highly lowkey sexual, I mean just see all the IG bikini cowgirl models with Bible quotes shooting guns and still hung up that Obama won and who praise Trump.

I can honestly state that pornography helped me grow, but I do respect and like that it is “over there”, i.e., it’s not something I’m in but somewhere that I can travel to. Raised a Christian Protestant and made to feel guilty about sexual urges for fear damnation, to overcoming my young twenty’s feelings of misogyny as I learned to appreciate feminism (non-cringe), to simply learning to mind my own business and understand that people have their own preferences which might not be mine (yet, I have my own) but if there’s consent, safety, and pleasure, then go at it, have fun.

There are many strong women in the porn industry I respect such as legendary Nina Hartley, Joanna Angel, Ginger Lynn (who overcame a lot of personal trauma), etc. The types I would like to talk to about life in general rather that turning them into a sexual object. Women are more than sex, but sex being a straight male from them, is a joy. A real man accepts and acknowledges this. Yet, it seems that sex, being something that all humans crave, typically drowns out the more pressing issues at hand regarding feminism on an international scale, e.g., with the internet being global, the Western viewpoint of pornography which might be more nuanced, might not translate well to developing nations under the yoke of patriarchy which does use violence. For example, what a Western woman might find appealing might be helping to oppress women in developing nations living under older notions of gender roles, yet, this is not the Western woman’s fault, but just a reality of the complexity of the diverse world we live in.

But to the point of this paper. I was reading the news and saw a curious case about a male porn star who was caught in a gun running Neo Nazi ring in which this ring was plotting to kill Black Lives Matter protestors. Even if you do not personally agree with BLM (why you would not is beyond me), we must remember that Nazism is not only racist towards anyone not white (it’s pretty brutal towards white people as well considering the Nazis murdered plenty Germans and other Europeans) but is also sexist/misogynist, homophobic, transphobic, anti-free speech, anti-art, etc.

According to Joseph Wilkerson (2021) of New York Daily News, Paul Kryscuk, a male pornstar was arrested on interstate gun trafficking charges in a ring with three US Marines, in which Kryscuk, held video tapped training sessions near his Boise, Idaho home depicting themselves saying “Heil Hitler” under a Black Sun flag. I heard this story when it came out, but it faded away, but surfing around online, I stumbled upon a video by a site called “Abuse Her”. Not my type of stuff. It is pretty messed up content to be honest and I am surprised it is online. Women are spit upon, gagged, throw up in dog bowls, inserted roughly, slapped, choked, cry, etc.

Seeing people broken is not pleasurable. It is sadistic. Yet, has sadism from males become this sort of “top shelf” drug for some females? One way domination is not too appealing, personally. Sex is a symbiosis; however, I do feel that being men, there is a psychological satisfaction in slight dominance, i.e., leading the way. This site is like another borderline illegal series called Slap Happy featuring Brandon Irons who was known for his indifference and misogynistic comments. The genre of “revenge porn” is not something that I never got into, though I understand it has a following across genders. Morals aside, it is not my thing. Even the simulation of assault is unacceptable. To me, the angry “revenge” notion of porn is something a guy might go through in his twenties as he tries to succeed with the opposite sex (and fails), but it is something that one should grow out of, but even so, this level of content is unacceptable. It might also be something that women desire because the arena of pornography being  a controlled spaces, lets women simulate something in a controllable way, they fear they might be exposed to without consent.

What is sad about Abuse Her is… these actresses, who are of all races and religions, probably had no clue about Paul Kryscuk political beliefs, and honestly were probably indifferent to varying degree, since pornography is about money mostly. Being a guy, I know the spectrum of men and there are a lot of dirt-bags out there, ladies. Straight up. Men who simply hate, mock, and disrespect women. However, I do understand that getting experiences is a part of the formula. But Paul Kryscuk not only performed with the stereotypical “fresh off the bus” type of model new to Los Angeles, but he worked with veteran actresses such as Nina Hartley who is Jewish.

But a Neo Nazi roughly having anal sex and ejaculating on women’s faces, particularly in content that is depicting male dominance and shaming women… is just sad, honestly. It is easy to blame the men collectively as being soulless, and for those with “souls” to be “simps” “betas”, etc., but f-cking ex-convicts with some skills at video editing (with notable spider web tattoos over their elbows), shows how indifferent people are, including the women. It would be easy to say this is all an example of patriarchy, but we must remember that these women voluntarily participated in this content, knowing the impact on the perception of females, feminism, etc. This is where the curiosity comes from, I believe when many people watch porn, but I am speaking for myself (but maybe you can relate). They (I) are asking themselves (myself) why? They ask themselves this to understand to toughen their mindset from chaos. Sure, not every woman has to be a feminist if she does not want to. Sure, actors are not responsible for the political beliefs of content creators or consumers, but still… at the end of the day, these men, particularly this Neo Nazi was able continue old legacy of white supremacy, i.e., white male entitlement regardless of how regressive their beliefs are, to have the pleasure of women of all races without criticism (though if people of other colors do the same thing the behavior is stigmatized), while also making most of the profits. These profits in this case likely were going towards supporting an underground economy of illegal guns meant for the purpose of killing liberals, progressives, leftists, minorities, etc. It sounds like Zoolander, but this is no laughing matter. It reminds me of the action movie Heat in which a character who is a Neo Nazi, murders a black sex worker after having sex with her.

Paul Kryscuk is the epitome of white supremacy, white cynicism, and white privilege, and he was able to be in an industry that attracts many young women – for various reasons, e.g., economic reasons, life experiences, etc., – on the notion of sexual feminism. Is sexual feminism exposing the people it claims to be supporting to mockery at the hands of people who outside of porn want to commit racial, sexual, religious, and gender-oriented violence? Granted, I do understand that I am attacking a broad concept by calling out sexual feminism in this specific regard. Many sex-positive feminists are adamant about self-respect. So, who I am angry at here?

I think it is more so anger at our society at large with it being a capitalist system that breeds disparity but also breeds insecurity as people are brainwashed into conspicuous consumption, seeing it as a gauge of economic mobility, yet this same capitalist system appropriates concepts like sexual feminism (of any counter culture) to hide its inherently exploitative core. I am sure there are many people who would do sex work for free, but to be honest, most do it for money. Money that is going towards expensive college education in a system where Big Business requires people to obtain it without Big Business offering much assistance. The money is going towards inflated real estate prices propped up by Central Banks, speculators, and gentrification. The money is going towards helping loved ones who might not have great healthcare insurance. The money is going towards feeding children in which women and/or couples (including men) do not have access to reproductive health/family planning services. But the money is also going to waste. Waste on items that lose value the moment they are purchased and in many cases were created from exploited labor elsewhere.

But, as a reminder, I am not shaming women.

Have we become so nihilistic and indifferent as a society that actors like Kryscuk can snake their way into arenas perceived as more liberal in nature and exploit others? I hate to write this as if I am shaming women, but women are past the point of ignorance or “I just didn’t know”. Kryscuk and his gang were spotted observing Black Lives Matter protests in Boise and this was during a time in the nation when extremist groups such as Boogaloo murdered two law enforcement officers, a militia in Michigan attempted a kidnapping on the female Governor, rising levels of hate crimes, etc. It seems our hyper capitalist, overly cerebral, interconnected reality has created something akin to the sinister tone underneath the seemingly comedic vibe of a postmodern author. We live in complete chaos, yet it is a chaos of necessity, in that people are doing what they have to do to survive in constructed systems built on exploiting us all. Humans laboring to survive in an indifferent world who barter our own integrity to get by in a country of abhorrent wealth disparity, corporatism, draconian law and order, gentrification, etc., but it all distills in culture wars, thus disuniting the proletariat. I do not blame women, but I do admit that it is incredibly sad.

But what I mean by sadness is not some emotion response, but rather something that reminds me at least that we truly are in a void. Some sort of plane between things that is beyond our mental comprehension. “Meat puppets”, biological robots, with the capacity to feel, who might back to the conclusion that we aren’t simply slaves to ourselves in a cold vast universe, feeding off each other’s energy, because we’re “sad”. Something I feel Rush Cohle from True Detective might muse on.

I see Abuse Her.com as a detriment to women’s empowerment, all the hard work, etc. There is this notion that fantasy is not reality, but the truth is fantasy is inescapable from reality. No matter how existential, angry, nihilistic, empowered a person is on their ‘do what thy whilst’ journey, the individual, in this case the performer regardless of gender or orientation, has no control over how people will see them and usurp their value for their own purposes. A person can literally be masturbating to a woman for free and still vote for initiatives that enslaves her.

Yet, what I have come to realize is that women to an extent see such degrading content as…empowering. Some sort of challenge against their worst fear, their philosophical and ideological antagonist. It’s not only a challenge but also a reverse sort of psychological warfare through a moral dilemma back into the face of those who watch it.

To be honest one reason I watch porn is to toughen myself up. But I do consider it as art whether it be a fun film set on some B-cult classic knock off or sci-fi oriented movie, to something that is truly well-written and thought provoking. Something private. Something for adults that adults can handle. It is odd I know to admit this, but to me it is as if I like to ponder that a person, I see on screen could be any person walking by me in the real world. What is funny is, this is the case. There is something empowering and progressive to know that this person on film is a person elsewhere. They have dreams, goals, aspirations. They are more dimensional than just a sex object, and as a result it humanizes the experience for me. I empathize and respect. Part of me wants to say to a female performer, is “I don’t judge you. If anything, you helped me grow”.

But what this Neo Nazi situation means to me is that the sex industry needs to be normalized. The more normalized it becomes the safer of a space it becomes. People can be better vetted for their personal beliefs. Revenues can be better taxed to help society. I have heard stories from strippers saying they cannot buy a house since banks want to see pay stubs and many establishments do not give checks, but it is all cash. This is a problem. Considering taxpayers bailed out banks but banks oddly still shame sex workers on the lowkey. Hub sites should pay performers for residuals. If a million people even pay one penny for a watch, and that video gets a million views, that could translate to income for past performers at $10,000.00. The imagine investing that money in a trust fund with compound interest. The industry should have criminal background investigations (I am sure the standard studios do), on top of contract agreements where racism, sexism, etc., are banned and violation means disbarment from work, and such individuals would be ousted though the social grapevine. Yet, for modern content creators out there, I want to say that I do respect you, but you do have great power, so protect yourself and vet those who give the privilege of your bodies.


#sexuality #gender #adultentertainment #politics #progressive

Understanding issues facing African American Owned Businesses from Brand-Image to the Supply Chain

Understanding issues facing African American Owned Businesses from Brand-Image to the Supply Chain

Applying Quality Management to African American Businesses

MGMT 691 Graduate Capstone Proposal

By Quinton M. Mitchell

M.S. Management (Operations Management) 2018

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Worldwide Campus)


The purpose of this research paper is to (1) Explore any limitations to branding products or services created by African Americans as Black-Owned by conducting a literature review which analyzes scholars who argue for and against segregated economies, i.e., protected enclaves; (2) Understand consumer behavior differences between African Americans and other groups by understanding theories such as the Customized Communication Incongruity Theory by Arora & Wu (2012) and Socialization Theory by Ward (1987); (3) Explore how marketing and advertising affects African Americans and how diverse/positive marketing campaigns improves black success; (4) To show positive gains within the African American community but also to explore the hindrances to African American economic productivity such as higher insurance costs, lack of capital markets, sensitivity to economic conditions, etc., and (5) Discuss Supply Chain issues in African American businesses by using black-owned breweries for a test industry to implement concepts just as strategic alliances, best practices and/or to emulate practices such as those used by Japanese Keiretsu.

Table of Contents

  1. Managerial Problem stated as a Research Question…………………………….…….5
  2. Setting/Background……………………………………………………………………5-6
  3. Research Activity……………………………………………………………………….6-7
  4. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………7
    1. To open the community or to close off the community?……………………………7-10
    2. The underlying psychology of branding and marketing pertaining to African Americans…………………………………………………………………….10-12
    3. Disparities between African American Owned Business and White Owned Businesses……………………………………………………………………12-16
  5. How African Americans respond to brand image & issues regarding advertising and media portrayals…………………………………………………………………………….16-20
  6. African Americans in the Supply Chain & the need for Strategic Alliances or Joint Ventures………………………………………………………………………………20-32
  7. Is the Japanese Keiretsu model appropriate for African American Breweries? ….33-39
  8. Conclusions………………………………………………………………………….39-41
  9. Annotated Bibliography…………………………………………………………….40-44

List of Figures

Figure 1.          2017 Top Black Owned Businesses by Black Enterprises…………….22

Figure 2.          Michael Porter’s (1979) Five Force of Competition…….………………32

Figure 3.          Zaibatsu vs Keiretsu by Yonekura (1985), cited by Grabowiecki (2012) …………33

Figure 4.          Theoretical Model for African American Brewery Consolidation………36

Keywords: African American, #business, #behavior

Managerial Problem stated as a Research Question:

Does the resurgence of labeling products as “Black Owned” has its limitations? Should African American owned businesses think bigger and take a risk by creating brand campaigns that targets a larger non-race specific consumer base? Should smaller African American owned firms join forces through concepts such as strategic alliances, joint-ventures, or even the Japanese concept of Keiretsu? Is it safe to view the black community as a singular entity, or does a complex intersectionality exists within the black-community, and, if so, which ideology, or which marriage of ideologies, is more effective at achieving sustained success for African Americans? In addition, can the establishment of a supply-chain network between African American owned businesses help improve visibility of brands, maximize economies-of-scale, improve service/item quality or value, and increase profitability?

I. Setting/Background:

African-American in business have a long history in the United States ranging from entrepreneurs or CEOs who have gone to build empires or sustain already established business empires; to running established firms who have made catered services and products towards African-Americans and the world at large, and the number of African-Americans winning managerial positions in name-brand American firms since the Civil Rights movement. Yet, Black-Owned businesses faces a plethora of issues ranging from access to credit, the risk-reward aspect of certain industries, and the fact that African-Americans, as with most Americans, have benefited positively from, while also being negatively impacted by the effects of globalism, the loss of labor protection, the hyper-competition of corporate multi-national companies.  

In addition, Gillian B. White (2017) wrote an article that noted black CEO representation peaked in 2007 but has been slowly dwindling due to removal or retirement. As a result, I am arguing that black-owned businesses who market their products as “black owned” instead should market their products towards all consumers, regardless of the self-empowered notion of supporting black-owned businesses, because the level of product visibility and profitability will increase. Essentially, be black-owned, sure, and be proud of that, but market and win customers regardless of who they are. However, this paper is not an indictment of Black-Owned branding, but rather an argument that the call for branding products as such should of course be from a sense of empowerment, but not to the extreme of exclusivity which could have detrimental effects on capital accumulation and distribution of profits amongst the community. Why have one market, when you can compete with larger companies in multiple markets? To support Black-owned businesses and possibly improve the quality-of-life of certain African American communities, thinking bigger and expanding consumer bases can increase African American economic prosperity. For example, we know that Toyota is a brand of cars that is obviously made in Japan, and the brand is synonymous with quality, but the Japanese benefit from a clever branding strategy where the products does the talking for the culture. The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations to assist black-owned businesses, not from a stance of exclusion, but rather to further normalize products for all consumers regardless of race.

II. Research Activity:

A brief background into African American business ownership from a historical perspective will be presented. In addition, a historical view of race-centric marketing will be presented to strengthen the premise that race and marketing are often in unison. This historical perspective will lead up to my initial business problems facing the community and then I will follow up on conceptual ideas that could generate benefits. Giving dues when needed to the current landscape, I will then offer my recommendation for focusing on brand-image marketed towards a diverse consumer base, which in my opinion, can increase black economic output without labeling itself as “black-owned”, but if a firm decides to brand themselves as black-owned, which is justified considering the complex history of the United States, then there needs to be a strategic re-training of the thought process to challenge oneself to expand what new markets black Americans can or should participate in. Qualitative research will then be discussed to link the marketing of brands to the importance of the supply-chain.

Finally, a summary of the supply-chain as far as key aspects will be discussed and then I will construct a conceptual supply-chain or strategic alliance theory in which an African American business owner could formulate strategic ideas. The goal of this project is to emphasis strategic-thinking while loosely threading upon the quality management philosophies of early scholars such as Deming, Juran, and Crosby, to get Black-owned business owners to think more expansionist-minded, while simultaneously being inclusive towards all communities.

IV. Literature Review

A. To open the community or to close off the community?

Cummings (1999) presents a study comparing African American entrepreneurs conducting business in the ghetto’s protected- market versus the suburbs or larger Metropolitan Statistical Areas and argues that African American firms outperform when operating in larger non-segregated environments. Cummings (1999) provides a qualitative and quantitative study regarding the flaws of racially-segregated economies by touching upon the enclave-theory and protected market theory by referencing researchers such as Drake & Clayton (1945), Cummings (1980), and Light & Rosenthein (1995). In the study, Cummings (1999) states, “Although racial segregation may be a prime factor promoting ethnic and enclave enterprise, it simultaneously undermines business growth and development”. In addition, Cummings (1999) shares findings from Brimmer and Terrell (1971) who states that African American entrepreneurs who depend upon a segregated-protected market have high potential for failure. Moreover, when faced with desegregation and group dispersion, businesses that depend exclusively upon an enclave market are likely to fail (Brimmer and Terrell, 1971).

Rueben & Queen (2015) studied how African American owned businesses suffer adversely from unequal access to capital markets and the prevalence of institutional barriers. Although not universally appreciated, African Americans have a long history of entrepreneurial achievements against odds. African Americans are more likely to start a business, yet, are less likely to succeed (Rueben & Queen 2015). Rueben & Queen (2015) stated that the success of minority businesses to employ more workers and raise the productivity of workers is essential to U.S. economic growth, considering the U.S. labor forecasts (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012, as cited by Rueben & Queen 2015), the 2025– 2050 outlook on the U.S. labor market is expected to grow slowly with most of growth coming from 55 million by minorities and immigrant workers. Further, despite these increases in the number of African American owned firms, African American entrepreneurs tend to participate in industry sectors with less capital requirements for start-up and expansion. However, some of these industries have lower revenue streams. Yet, when African American entrepreneurs operate in high revenue generating industries, their average annual revenue and average annual payroll per employee are significantly lower than their white counterparts (Rueben & Queen 2015).

The yearning to empower black businesses has led to a conflict in policy ideologies as presented by Cummings (1999). The enclave economy theory alludes to the positive outcomes associated with racially or ethnically segregated communities, but considering the criticisms presented by Tabb (1970) such as (1) smaller markets, (2) lower income consumers, (3) higher insurance rates, (4) inability to access credit, (5) higher rates of theft, and (6) limited access to capital, there are parties at be that wish to open the black community to larger markets but from the stance of community re-invigoration, yet not entirely from a segregated mentality. According to Cummings (1999), community-based development initiatives are activities inspired by or aimed at service social groups in a locality. In addition, community-based development initiatives also refer to those efforts organized by people who share a common urban geography (Blakely 1994).  

Strategies that come from inwardly focused values and not economic realities are likely not going to make a competitive advantage (Barney & Hesterly, 2015, p 6). This touches upon my argument regarding the general trend in the growth – as far as a calling or social justice movement – of marketing products or services as Black-owned. There is nothing wrong with this, yet there are many assumptions and a diversity of ulterior motives that can occur when there is a calling for a segregate mentality. Such as, considering the social nature of human beings when classified, there can be a limit on the expressive modes – which can be profitable – that a group feels they can participate in. I call this a “culture-trap”, in which the standard or traditional culture is such a firm aspect of identity, that deviating to innovate for an individual, can have detrimental social and psychological effects. In addition, this “culture-trap” not only limits innovation, it can lead to issues such as brain-drain (when intellectuals leave the community in order to associate themselves with more supportive individuals), attrition (leaving the community), and the recycling effect of standard discourses when relating to issues effecting a community.  Also, there have been clear examples of black-on-black business crimes or political corruption, in which the culprits have often used the calling for black segregation for their own financial and personal gains.

 There seems to be a standard agreed upon set of values for African-Americans when consciously entering the business arena, i.e., a sense of liberation and self-empowerment, and although these yearnings are noble and arguably justified considering the sociopolitical and economic truths of African-American culture (slavery, segregation, red-lining, police profiling, etc.), yet the ultimate goal is, of course, to empower the group, yet it has to be based inevitably on an open-market, non-exclusive long-term agenda – with active but non-exclusive black participation – where products or services are focused on the bottom-line of profitability, penetrating new markets (both physical, i.e., foreign countries, but also unrealized cultural markets, i.e., cultural facets of American culture with black participation but that aren’t associated with black cultural as a whole) and the realization of a multicultural globalist reality based on a post-racialist idea or aspiration.

However, the claims provided by Cummings (1999), Rueben and Queen (2015), and Tabb (1970) are rebutted by Chaplain (2012) who argues that integration has destroyed the black economy. The black community lacked the requisite socio-cultural characteristics to develop a robust entrepreneurial tradition and, second, that integration, as an independent variable, destroyed black-owned business. Chapin (2012) studies the affects of government regulations which highly curtailed African American business growth and this provides more historical background on my study. Since insurance is a major part of entrepreneurship and running a business, Chapin (2012) study can shed light on the emotional reasons many African Americans are compelled to market their goods as black-owned and might give credence to the calling for black separatism. Yet, a major focus for business ownership growth and development in the African American community must be on the strategic expansion of the employer firms (Rueben & Queen 2015).

Chaplin (2012) seems to be of the vein of intellectuals who argue segregation as a benefit to African-Americans; however, Chaplin (2012) is sensitive to history, and only seems to be basing his premise on the fact that systemic injustice such as a society built on “white Affirmative-Action” had a detrimental effect on blacks, even though black communities formulated under this system and showed signs of progress. Yet, Cummings (1999) study on the undermining of business growth and Rueben & Queen (2015) study which shed light on the future growth of minority groups in the United States, I feel that there is a calling for creating a black-owned business mentality, yet, there is also the need for it not be exclusive. Essentially, we need more entrepreneurs and businesses owners, but the underlying motivation must be global and catering towards all people.

B. The underlying psychology of branding and marketing pertaining to African Americans

Jeffrey Steven Padoshen (2008) presents a compelling study into how African Americans value and apprise goods based off unique characteristics of their community. As “minority” groups such as African Americans and Latinos grow in overall proportion to America as a whole, particular attention must be placed on the understanding of their consumption characteristics (Padoshen, 2008). Padoshen (2008) presents a study that investigates word-of-mouth and brand loyalty within the context of durable-goods purchases in the African American community to see if there are effects on purchase decisions when a supplier was at one time linked to the slave trade, and if there’s a preference for purchasing products which come from black-owned companies. Padoshen (2008) provides a historical background into African American communication by referencing Thorp & Williams (2001) who argued that African American uprooting from their African homeland destroyed the means of communication. Further, Padoshen (2008) references Harris-Lacwell (2004) & Gothard (2001) who argued that oral-storytellers remedied these severed means of communications (Thorp &Williams, 2001) within the black community. Padoshen (2008) references Gothard (2001), Thorp & Williams (2001), & Harris-Lacwell (2004), & Miller & Kemp (2005) many times throughout his insightful study. Both Gothard (2001) and Miller & Kemp (2005) defined word-of-mouth communication within the context of the African American community – a major part of African American culture – as having four (4) distinct elements, which is trust, respect, open-voice, and black-to-black communication.

Regarding the open-voice element of African American culture, which I deem as important, Padoshen (2008) references Miller & Kemp (2005)  who defined this element as the ability to have an exchange of opinions that might not be welcomed by the outside population, and that the Black Church is highly trusted institution in the black community because it is solely owned and controlled by the black community and is a “prime exemplar” of an open-voice facilitating venue, considering, according to Harris-Lacewell (2004) and Miller & Kemp (2004) – as referenced by Padoshen (2008) – the Black Church is seen by many as the critical location for the definition of truth, which, fostered by open interaction, allows individual to enter a process that helps them create a greater and more acceptable worldview. In Padoshen (2006) study, it was summarized that the Black Church (Harris-Lacwell, 2004; Miller & Kemp, 2005), & Barbershop, Beauty Salons and other informal settings (Gothard, 2001; Harris-Lacwell, 2004) helps fosters black-to-black communication. “Authentic” African American community leaders “who tell it like it is” (Tharp and Williams, 2001) also play a large role in the fact that they are seen with respect, and therefore become a preferred source of information (Padoshen, 2008). Further, Street cred can also have mass appeal (Miller and Kemp, 2005) in which a highly respected celebrity exposes their like (or dislike) for a product (Padoshen, 2008).

According to Padoshen (2008), African American culture is one in which greater distinctions are made between outsiders and insiders compared to Anglo-American culture (de Mooij, 1998) and significant weight is attached to personal qualities. For many African Americans, premium brand names and symbols are mechanisms that reflect the hard and long portrayal of higher aspirations (Miller and Kemp, 2005). Further, Miller & Kemp (2005) speaks into how African-Americans favor brand-names because it is reflecting a “badge” or “badge of honor”, particularly for a group who was largely relegated to be an outsider, thus, wearing brand-names helps to include these people into the overall larger culture.  In addition, Padoshen (2008) states that African Americans have indicated that when purchasing automobiles, brand nameplate, looks and style are more important in their purchase decision than safety when compared to Anglo Americans (Packaged Facts, 2006).

Padoshen (2008) references one of his prior studies (Padoshen & Hunt, 2006) to support his claim that historical treatment of African Americans, similar that of Jews who suffered under the Holocaust, can have generational effects when buying products from sources who are equates with supporting or benefiting from the systemic injustices that kept that their people subjugated. The most important finding of Padoshen (2008) finding is that, African Americans indicate that they are no more trusting of the advice they receive in comparison with that of Anglo Americans. Padoshen (2008) research is an exceptional example of the dilemma facing most African Americans in my opinion, which is that studies – even if objective without any sort of racial bias – assumes a distinct racial and sociopolitical characteristic than that from the larger culture they are technically a part of. This bias, even if assumed on noble grounds to prevent an issue such as systemic injustice, can never lead to a full understanding of human nature. Essentially, we can define a group up to a point, but can never fully know a group, or even a group understanding itself entirely, which isn’t a bad thing – from a business perspective, this is new unrealized markets and ways towards profitability.

C. Disparities between African American Owned Business and White Owned Businesses

Tang & Smith (2013) conducted a study that researched African American business disparity in comparison with White-owned businesses regarding market segmentation, product differentiation, and competition, but their findings suggested that the difference was not statistically significant. Tang & Smith (2013) studied the largest African-American owned employer firms from 1998-2008, as published in Black Enterprise Magazine, in which businesses on the list must be at least 51 percent African American-owned if a private company, or African Americans must own at least 51 percent of the controlling shares if the company is publicly traded and be willing to voluntarily provide financial data. Yet, Tang & Smith (2013) admits a bias in their research as far as selection of candidates from the Black Enterprise Magazine, in that some of the firms on the list may be “front companies”, in that they are non-African American owned but registered as such and that certain actual African-American owned firms may not have given up financial data to maintain a non-disclosure position. From personal experience in government and corporate procurement, where seeking minority, woman-owned, or general small (no-racial assignment) businesses is a goal, I have found this misrepresentation of classification as something endemic in the procurement field. 

Tang & Smith (2013) utilized a contingency (environmental)-view to study Black business disparity when compared to White-owned businesses, in which they cite Aldrich’s (1979) definition of a contingency-view as explaining variations in firm performance from the interaction of the organization and environment, in which environments affect firms through the process of making or withholding resources, and the top three environmental contingencies are complexity, volatility, and munificence. Munificence is defined as very liberal in giving or bestowing or characterized by great liberality or generosity (Munificent, n.d.). Tang & Smith (2013), summarizes their utilization of the contingency (environmental influenced)-view, by saying, “When the rest of America catches a cold, Black America gets the flu. In other words, declines and dips in environmental variables like income, GDP, and labor supply will have a greater negative impact on black businesses. The number and type of contingent environmental factors able to influence the performance of established African American firms is undoubtedly numerous.”

A large motivator in conducting their research, Tang & Smith (2013) cited Fairlie & Robb (2012) who stated that it is estimated that closing the revenue gap between minority and non-minority owned businesses would add $2.5 trillion to the US economic output, creating 11.8 more jobs in America; Fairlie & Robb (2008) who stated that performance disparity might stem from issues of start-up capital, owner’s education level, and prior business experience, and Keollinger et al (2007) who stated that African-Americans have lower personal wealth, greater difficulty in obtaining financing, less education, and lack of entrepreneurial legacy. Further, Tang & Smith (2013) cited research by Puryear et al. (2001) which found that African-American owned businesses were the only minority group to report medium gross sales significantly lower than their white comparison sample, and African-American businesses where the least success as rated by their owners. In addition, Tang & Smith (2013) states that some of the studies pertaining to performance disparity between African-American and majority-owned firms, focus almost exclusively on sale proprietors or entrepreneurial firms undergoing the start-up stage (e.g. Buckley, 2002; Puryear et al, 2001; Richtermeyer, 2002); However, the focus on more established business will likely shift from overcoming liability of newness and survivability to concepts such as market segmentation, product differentiation, and competition as the business moves through the typical life-cycle (Hofer, 1975 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013).

Overall, Tang & Smith (2013) concluded that (1) the complexity and volatility associated with one of the most difficult US business environments since the 1940s (the Global Recession, in my own words) may increase the performance disparity between established African American and White-owned firms; (2) that existing knowledge about African American entrepreneurial firm performance may not transfer to larger, more established African American businesses; (3) their findings do not suggest that emerging African American firms should avoid entering complex and volatile industries;(4) emerging African American businesses often operate in industries that are more favorable, marked by less complexity and volatility such as construction, wholesale trade, and manufacturing (US Department of Commerce Minority Business Development Agency, 2011), but these industries are characterized as relatively low growth industries (Tang & Smith, 2013); (5) a “strategic choice” approach would imply that despite unfavorable industry characteristics, African American businesses may be able to actively shape their future and control their environment (Child, 1972), responding to threats and opportunities created by environmental change by altering organizational strategies in ways that enhance performance (Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978; Porter, 1980). The task for African American businesses then becomes developing the capabilities or distinctive competencies needed to overcome isolating mechanisms and mitigate industry conditions (Tang & Smith, 2013).

It is on black community-leaders to be open-minded (challenging the culture-trap I referred to earlier and opening new ways of thinking, while community member simultaneously keep open-minds as to not be lead to narratives which might not account for the entire truth) considering Thorps & Williams (2001) claim that authentic leaders who “tell it like it is” have strong community influence as cited by Padoshen (2006); in the African-American community, greater distinctions are made between outsiders and insiders with weight attached to personal qualities (de Mooji, 1998 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008); brand names and symbols are signifiers of higher aspirations and are considered badges-of-honor (Miller & Kemp, 2005 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008), so much so that safety – at least relating to automobile purchases – is largely a non-impactful decision (Packaged Facts, 2006 – as cited by Padoshen, 2008); African-Americans are no more trusting than Anglo-Americans (Padoshen, 2008); closing the revenue-gap between whites and blacks would add $2.5 trillion to the US economic output (Fairlie & Robb, 2012 – as cited by Tang &Smith, 2013); African-Americans have lower personal wealth, greater difficulty in obtaining financing, less education, and lack of entrepreneurial legacy (Keollinger et al, 2007 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013); more established firms will shift from survivability and newness to market segmentation, product differentiation, and competitions (Hofer, 1975 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013); information on African-American start-up and entrepreneurial performance many not reach established African-American firms, the Global Recession had a negative impact on the African-American community, and African-American firms often operate in less volatile or complex industries with relatively slow growth (Tang & Smith, 2013; US Department of Commerce Minority Business Development Agency, 2011), yet, these unfavorable characteristics – speaking to volatile and complex markets – may be able to actively shape African-Americans futures (Childs, 1972 – as cited by Tang & Smith); the black church, barber-shop and beauty salons and other informal settings fosters open interaction (Gothard, 2001; Harris-Lacewell, 2004 & Miller & Kemp, 2004 – as cited by Padoshen, 2006 and 2008). 

V. How African Americans respond to brand image & issues regarding advertising and media portrayals

Kristen Bialik (2018) of the Pew Research Center, noted that (1) more than 40 million blacks live in the United States, making up around 13% of the nation’s population according to 2016 Census Bureau estimates (US Census Bureau, 2016); (2) The share of blacks ages 25 and older who have completed four years of college or more has also roughly doubled during that span, from 12% in 1993 to 24% in 2017 (United States Census Bureau, 2017); (3) There were 4.2 million black immigrants living in the U.S. in 2016, up from 816,000 in 1980, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of census data, and recent growth in the black immigrant population has been fueled by African migration at 39% of the overall black immigrant population in 2016, up from 24% in 2000, but about half of all foreign-born blacks (49%) living in the U.S. in 2016 were from the Caribbean (Lopez & Radford, 2017, as cited by Bialik, 2018); (4) the wealth gap between blacks and whites decreased among lower-income families but increased among middle-income families. The Great Recession of 2007-2009 triggered a stark decline in wealth for U.S. families and further widened the already large wealth gap between white and black households (Konchhar & Cilluffo, 2017); (5) There has been a steady increase in the share of Americans who view racism as a big problem in the U.S. – especially among African Americans since 2009, when Barack Obama was elected. In 2017, about eight-in-ten blacks (81%) said racism is a big problem in society today, up from 44% eight years prior. By comparison, about half of whites (52%) said racism is a big problem in our society, up from 22% in 2009 (Neal, 2017), and (6) An overwhelming majority of blacks (92%) say whites benefit at least a fair amount from advantages that blacks do not have. This includes nearly seven-in-ten blacks (68%) who say whites benefit a great deal. By comparison, 46% of whites say whites benefit at least a fair amount from advantages in society that blacks do not have, with just 16% saying whites benefit a great deal (Oliphant, 2017).

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) conducted a study based off a survey sample pool from an online panel of more than three million consumers in the U.S. where the pool was stated as being generally reflective of the overall American consumer base – seeking equal representation among factors such as gender equality and educational attainment, although the sample relating to African Americans had more African American female respondents and when relating to Hispanic Americans had more younger male Hispanic respondents. Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) then compared global brand recognition among diverse ethnic groups by basing their main concerns on Phinney’s (1996) definition of ethnicity and his first aspect of ethnicity which is cultural values, attitudes, and behaviors of groups.

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) drew conclusions based from survey data analysis and a structural equation model which suggests that associations with global brands as a general category vary across ethnic groups, such as Caucasian consumers showing less of an appreciation of global brands, whereas African Americans and Hispanics show similar patterns to those of prior research such as that of O’Hara (1987) who suggests African Americans & Hispanics have more similarities to markets in lesser developed nations; the research of Alden, Steenfamp, and Batra (1999) who posited that most global brand findings are based on cross-national samples and that the global brand effect is particularly strong in less developed countries, and the research of Darley & Johnson (1993) who presented that African American marketplace behavior and attitudes toward advertising reflect those observed in less developed countries in Africa and Asia, including more positive attitude towards globalization. Furthermore, Dimofte, Johansoon, Bagozzi (2010), states, “U.S. consumers tend to be more diverse than in most mature market economies, with large ethnic-based market segments”, thus enabling Dimofte, Johansoon & Bagozzi (2010) to identify potential differences between Caucasian Americans and ethnic minority market segments. 

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010), understanding the complex issues with gathering, organizing, defining, and measuring global brand research, admits that research on global brands is more limited (Keller, 2007). Minority groups are young on average than the rest of the U.S. population and thus are more attractive to marketers (Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi 2010). Further, O’Hara (1987) & Pitts et al. (1989) as cited by Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) states that African American segment has long been of special interest to marketers, with products adapted for their special needs, especially in cosmetics, personal care products, food, and print media.

Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) indicates that it is generally accepted that consumption behavior, especially a conspicuous brand choice, is to some extent reflective of individual identity and social aspirations, thus, choice of brand especially for product categories with social visibility, constitutes an expression of identity and achievement, or, in other words, self-expressive markers and identity forgers considering global-brands are well-known and widely recognized, which thus makes them more adept and effective at service a social function. Overall, Dimofte, Johansoon, & Bagozzi (2010) summarizes African American and Hispanics generally favored globalization; Caucasians did not think that global brands had higher quality, but Caucasians did feel global brands had consistent quality; African Americans and Hispanics perceive the prices of global brands as higher, but all three groups show a cognitive consistency that global brand is a relevant attribute, and that African Americans and Hispanics favor higher quality although the sale of higher quality goods are best marketed when the aspiration-factor is implied and not emphasized.

Arora & Wu (2012) conducted a study that researched how positive and negative stereotypes were found to impact ad-evoked feeling and brand equity, by theorizing that stereotypes through print advertising generates Customized Communication Incongruity. The results of the study conducted by Arora & Wu (2012) concluded that for positive stereotypes, both males and females prefer positive stereotypes, and positive stereotypes influenced ad-evoked feelings that influenced brand equity for both genders. Further, the Arora & Wu (2012) study concluded that brand loyalty and perceived quality dimensions of consumer-based brand equity were not significantly impacted by negative ad-evoked feelings, with males more agreeable of negative stereotype advertising than females, but both genders still generated negative ad-evoked feelings. The simplest way to summarize Arora & Wu’s (2012) theory of Customized Communication Incongruity, is when an individual sees an advertising that results in a mismatch or distortion of values or expectations. Thus, their study relating to racial stereotype-based advertising is meant to study how people react to media that is arguably stereotypical, and whether this response has effects on brand-value.

The Customized Communication Incongruity Theory by Arora & Wu (2012) builds off schema-based research provided Leoff (2002) who suggested that ads that do no match advertising expectations are more likely to draw consumers’ attention and proceed more extensively than ads that match advertising expectations, thus providing a way for brands to stand out. Advertisers have a strong influence on shaping consumer perceptions as advertisements can either help eradicate the negative perceptions of African Americans, or they can facilitate pervasive stereotypes, which may increase racism (Arora & Wu, 2012). In other words, ad campaigns that break stereotypes can spur continued interests. Arora & Wu (2012) cited Stevenson & Swayne (2011) whose research suggested that as of the late 90s, there were a small percentage of black models used in in magazine advertisements when compared to the general population. Further, Arora & Wu (2012) cites Cohen & Garcia (2005) who suggested that application of negative stereotypes of a racial group, with media as a reinforcement tool, brings discrimination and stigmatizations to the front, and media when based on stereotypes can have adverse effects to self-esteem, self-efficacy, and even level of achievements.

Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) conducted a study on outdoor advertising regarding African Americans and found that there are differences between white and black consumers’ receptiveness to outdoor billboard advertising. These differences are highly significant across each of the items within the scale of receptiveness, measuring awareness, influence on patronage, information conveyance, and overall attitude toward the medium. The receptiveness difference is at least in part a function of education and income, and the differences lose their significance only at the highest levels of both. Maybe surprisingly, the affluent black consumers without college education show higher levels of receptiveness (Fortenberry & McGoldrick 2011).

Yet, Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) cites Ward’s (1987) socialization theory, in order to find reasons for why college-educated affluent blacks mimic less receptiveness to billboards similar to that of their white counterparts and concluded that education socializes people to be more critical away from family and personal social bonds, and that the increased income generated by furthering education helps people migrate to areas where billboard advertising isn’t as common or accepted. Lastly, Fortenberry & McGoldrick (2011) cites Morris (1993) and Yoon (1995) who summarized that Black Americans demonstrated a greater degree of openness in discussing the influence of billboards within their society and supported the views that they have strong interest in material possessions.

Yuki Fujikoa (1999) conducted a study to show the effects of vicarious contact via television on stereotypes of African Americans among White and Japanese college students, in which the study provided some evidence that television messages had a significant impact on viewers’ perceptions when first-hand information was lacking. The study suggests that perceived positive portrayals of African Americans on television are effective in reducing negativity (Fujikoa 1999). It is more effective to reduce negative stereotypes of African Americans when we interact with many different African Americans who display counter-stereotypical behavior than when we interact with intimate African American friends (Fujikoa 1999). Since television can show a variety of positive African American models to a relatively large audience, television seems to have a great potential for stereotype reduction. Fujikoa (1999) cites Berg (1990) who stated that stereotypes are not necessarily negative, but they can destructive or bad when used by the dominant group to underscore majority-minority differences or to make some other (e.g. ethnic minority) groups inferior. Further, Fujikoa (1999) cites Berg (1990) who stated that interracial contact helps develop a mutual relationship between members of the two ethnic groups (e.g. White and African Americans), and we may expect an improvement in racial attitudes.

VI. African Americans in the Supply Chain & the need for Strategic Alliances or Joint Ventures

To develop insights into how a black supply chain would look like, we must first see which industries employ large numbers of African Americans, and then select a specific industry to go further. Regarding industry participation, more than half of the 106,566 African-American (AA) owned employer firms (67,665 or 63.5 %) participate in only 5 of the 22 major North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sectors: (1) Health Care/Social Assistance, (2) Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, (3) Retail Trade, (4) Administrative Support/Waste Management, and (5) Construction. This leaves fewer than 40 % (36.5 %) of these firms in the remaining 17 industry classifications” (Rueben & Queen 2015). Further, according to Rueben & Queen (2015) stated that while critics will contend that this revenue disparity between African American business owners and other groups is due significantly to the type of industry in which most African-American business owners participate (lower earning, labor-intensive sectors versus higher earning, capital-intensive sectors), this analysis does not support that contention. Although African-American business owners do not have high participation rates in manufacturing and utilities sectors which are high yielding, capital-intensive industries, the highest industry sector participation for African-American businesses include 5 of the top 10 revenue generating industries for all firms (Rueben & Queen 2015).

Yet, to reiterate, Rueben & Queen (2015) more than half of the 106,566 African-American (AA) owned employer firms (67,665 or 63.5 %) participate in only 5 of the 22 major North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sectors: (1) Health Care/Social Assistance, (2) Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, (3) Retail Trade, (4) Administrative Support/Waste Management, and (5) Construction, yet these 5 industries are included in the top 10 revenue generating industries for all firms.

Black Enterprise Research (2016), of the organization Black Enterprise, which defines itself as a total media firm whose goal is providing premier business, investing, and wealth-building resources for African Americans, presented the following list of top-performing African-American firms.

Figure 1 – Black Enterprise Research List of Top African American Businesses by Revenue (2016)

According to the United States Census Bureau (2012) the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. business economy. NAICS was developed under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and adopted in 1997 to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). NAICS codes from personal experience are important because from a government procurement standpoint, many solicitations are issued based on NAICS codes, so the more a firm has diverse NAICS codes, the more chance they have at being discovered by government contracting agencies, but also the higher possibility of the firm relating their company’s unique products of services to that of government issued solicitations. For example, while in the United States Air Force, while serving with the 325th Contracting Squadron at Tyndall Air Force, Florida, when soliciting for commercial items, equipment, commercial construction, IT products etc., I was required to find sources based on NAICS codes. If a firm didn’t have a NAICS code listed under their profile either in the Government-Point-of-Entry called Federal Business Opportunities or through another market research tool such as the Small Business Administration’s Dynamic Business Search (http://dsbs.sba.gov/dsbs/search/dsp_dsbs.cfm), then than firm might be overlooked. 

A brief skim over the top twenty firms as provided by Black Enterprise Research (2016), it seems to align to the research provided by Rueben & Queen (2015) with Health Care/Social Assistance, Professional/Scientific/Technical Services, and Retail Trade (which I will caveat as including automotive parts sales and food services) being represented. Yet, from the view of any onlooker in this paper, there is something missing: there are no actual large name, visible brand names, or brand-name manufacturers on the list, i.e., Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Starbucks, etc.

This leads back to issues facing African-American firms such as (1) unequal access to capital markets and the prevalence of institutional barriers (Rueben & Queen, 2015), (2) issues of start-up capital, owner’s education level, and prior business experience (Fairlie & Robb, 8008 – as cited by Tang & Smith, 2013), and the reality of a historical treatment in which African-Americans entered the business arena when the United States was already on its way to de-industrialization and globalization, i.e., the cost and liability of being a large manufacturer were disadvantageous to African-Americans. So, it seems that African American firms are highly active either as suppliers within already established supply-chains that supplements larger manufacturers – either as multi-year contract suppliers through agreements with larger firms, or as stand-alone units that are smaller than more visible corporate entities such as Fortune 500 companies. African-American firms can generate profits, but as far as dominating markets in comparison with standard Fortune or S&P 500 firms, it seems that African-American firms are used by these firms to maintain smaller demographic specific markets (for example, Johnson and Johnson owing a firm that sells black hair-care products) or helping achieve their larger strategic-goals by making including them as suppliers within their supply-chains.

This insinuates that (1) winning long-term contracts with larger firms is vital and (2) overcoming capital-constraints and operating in a globalist reality is something that needs to be realized by Black business owners. The second statement, can be fulfilled either through government financing programs, such as grants, loans, or obtaining government contracts; private financing from large banks who have a goal of supporting minority-owned business; private financing through black-owned banks, such as Carver Federal Savings Bank (https://www.carverbank.com/), who theoretically can target or work with viable black-owned firms to issue credit for start-up firms or established firms while simultaneously expanding their reserves, and/or luring in foreign-direct investment through acceptable financial institutions, particularly in developing regions such as Africa in which the majority of black immigration to the United States are coming from.

Whitfield & Farrell (2010) conducted a study that suggested that African American executives were less likely to perceived constructive dimensions of organizational culture. Whitfield & Farrell (2010) references Gomez-Mejia & Palich (1999) who stated that a diversity inclusive corporate culture is said to improve innovation and adaptiveness in heterogeneous market segments faced by international companies, and Crook et al (2008) who stated that building diverse supply-chains is seen as an additional effective means of increasing a firm’s performance similar to employer diversity. Additionally, Whitfield & Farrell (2010) references the United States Small Business Association (2001) who stated that minority-owned businesses have been a growing segment of the U.S. economy, nearly doubling as a percentage of the economy from the mid-1990s to early 2000s, and Eroglu, Green Thornton, & Bellenger (2001) who stated that this growth has become a business necessity. 

Whitefield & Farrell (2010), concludes their research by stating, “There is some cause for optimism among these findings of perceptual differences. Between the non-minority buyers and the African American supplier CEOs the significant difference is that these suppliers see the buyer culture as less constructive. The African American CEOs see less passive defensiveness and less aggressive defensiveness than the buyers. For the African American, the views are different from Caucasians but not extreme or opposite. The Hispanic minority CEOs perceptions are more divergent from the perceptions of Caucasian buyers. For the Hispanic supplier CEOs, the buying organization culture appears defensive to cultural diversity.” In summary, regardless of what color the supplier or buyer is, when purchasing firms that are white-owned or black-owned, or for suppliers who are black-owned or white-owned, there is an easier framework to conduct business.

Selecting a specific industry and developing a specific-supply chain model for a firm is theoretical for this paper. Speaking for the need to implement standard Supply-Chain concepts such as Enterprise Resource Planning systems (SAP, Peoplesoft, Oracle), utilizing third-party logistic firms, speaking to supply-chain concepts such as Statistical Delivery rates or Quality control, or issues of warehousing, doesn’t necessarily offer coherent strategies for improving African-American firms. Instead, the research I have pulled insinuates that African-American firms are profitable yet tend to operate in the role of supplier to larger firms, considering the capital constraints are often to daunting to be an effective large scale manufacturer or conglomerate, and/or African-American firms tend to operate as stand-alone entities functioning within the larger economy and catering towards customers either on a non-exclusive first-come first-serve basis regarding their products (restaurants, logistics companies, healthcare services, or IT services), or operation on an exclusive-basis in which products or services are catered towards unique cultural taste such as barbershops, cosmetics, etc.

For African-American owned firm to reach economies-of-scale – considering the institutional barriers, capital constraints and business realities – strategies such as strategic alliances or joint-ventures between African-American owned firms could be implemented to join forces thus facilitate maximizing economies-of-scale. This strategy could reconcile the realities of the modern American business environment which is defined by expensive labor costs, the potentiality of collective-bargaining or unionism, and free-trade in a globalist reality. By developing strategic alliances or joint-ventures between African-African firms, even if firms are unrelated to each other as far as the products or services they offer, this could help pool human and financial capital, limit tactic knowledge, facilitate mutual marketing of each other’s products, etc. Essentially, since African-Americans were introduced to the free-market of the mid-to-late twentieth century, when being a stand-alone manufacturer was becoming a more daunting task, African-American firms can combine forces, under single incorporation, in order to have more a visible and real impact on the economy. Former separate CEOs could then serve as board-members and by pooling together each other’s profitability under one roof this could help this theoretical firm get public financing which would then create more capital to expand into Afro-centric markets but also markets that aren’t racially exclusive. This compounding effect would not only have a social effect on the general public because people would be able to associate a large-scale firm with African-American success but could help create capital that could be targeted on innovation that would otherwise be non-existent if firms operated as stand-alone units.

For African American firms to reach the level of profitability that can have a global effect but also a community-empowering effect, the goal must be about winning a competitive advantage. A firm has a competitive advantage when it can create more economic value than rival firms (Barney & Hesterly, 2013, p 8). In addition, Barney & Hesterly (2013) states that competitive advantage is when a firm creates more economic value than rival firms, and economic value is simply the difference between the perceived benefits gained by a customer that purchases a firm’s products or services and that full economic cost of these products of services. In order words, the customer must think a product or service has more value (Benefits > Cost = Value) than that of competitors, but the firm is liable of sustaining this perception of higher value by providing quality services or products.

To achieve competitive advantages, not at the expense of other Black-owned businesses, African American firms may benefit through strategic alliances, joint-ventures, or the Japanese concept called Keiretsu.  In a joint venture, the companies start and invest in a new company that is jointly owned by both parent companies (Marzec, 2016). A strategic alliance is a legal agreement between two or more companies to share access to their technology, trademarks, or other assets. A strategic alliance does not create a new company (Marzec, 2016).

Regarding the concept of Keiretsu, Minor, Patrick, & Wu (1995) referenced both The Economist (1991) which stated that the most inclusive definition for keiretsu is that they are families of firms with interlocking stakes in one another, and Cohen (1985) who stated that keiretsu were encouraged by guidance, tax incentives, financial guarantees, direct subsidies, and protection from foreign competition. Further, Minor, Patrick, & Wu (1995) explains that keiretsu were the descendants of the pre-war zaibatsu, which were vast mining-to-manufacturing conglomerates based on the banking system, but the zaibatsu were disbanded, yet restriction on cross-shareholding were lifted; One of the unique aspects of keiretsu is that from 20 per cent to 40 per cent of stock is owned by member companies of its own keiretsu, and 60-80 per cent of the keiretsu stock is never traded; Horizontal, or bank-centered, keiretsu bring companies together to work on long-term projects that would be financially impossible for a single firm. These projects often turn out to be highly profitable because foreign competitors cannot take advantage of such partnerships where antitrust laws are more stringent (Boarman, 1993), and the vertical, or supplier keiretsu, forms when major manufacturers, such as an automobile maker or manufacturer of household electrical appliances, contract with suppliers for sole sourcing in exchange for production agreements excluding other buyers. Japan’s keiretsu, Korea’s chaebol, and Mexico’s grupos have played an important role in their countries’ development since the Second World War. These industrial conglomerates, bound by family ties, long-standing friendships, common ownerships and interlocking directories, and closely allied with their national governments, have spawned and linked industrial clusters in agriculture, minerals, basic industry and manufacturing – raising national productivity and their nation’s international competitiveness (Minor, Patrick & Wu, 1991).

Regardless of the organizational structure of Black-owned firms there always needs to be an emphasis on quality. High-quality goods and services can provide an organization with a competitive advantage (Evans & Lindsay, 2014, p 4). Further, Evans & Lindsay (2014) summarizes the Three Gurus of Quality Management – Deming, Juran, and Crosby – by saying, “Despite their significant differences to implementing organizational change, the philosophies of Deming, Juran, and Crosby are more alike than different. Each view quality as imperative in the future competitiveness in global markets; makes top management commitment an absolute necessity; demonstrates that quality management practices will save, not cost money; places responsibility for quality on management, not workers; stresses the need for continuous, never-ending improvement; acknowledges the importance of the customer and strong management/worker partnerships; and recognizes the need for the difficulties associated with change the organizational culture” (p. 64). 

Many of the African American firms on the Black Enterprise Research list, such as automotive parts suppliers, can be defined as contract manufacturers. According to Evans & Lindsey (2014) a contract manufacturer is an organization that performs manufacturing and/or purchasing and/or pushing need to produce a product or device not for itself, but as a service to another (Evans & Lindsay, 2014, p 43). This segment could be a good test to try out a strategic alliance, or, on a grander scale, a Keiretsu. Yet, in my own research, in I attempted to build an Excel spreadsheet based on the Black Enterprise Research (2016), to organize the data to find similar African American owned automotive part businesses. I did online searches into the businesses and conducted System for Award Management searches of the particular businesses’ registration and NAICS codes, but I felt the data of Black Enterprise Research (2016) wasn’t that viable for my model, however, it is valuable for basic information purposes.

As a result, I decided to propose an idea about what a black-owned Keiretsu in the brewing industry would look like. So, let’s talk about beer and wine – a favorite subject to many, even though there are other far more intensive fields (engineering, sciences, technology, high finances) that could have an impact, yet, I don’t have the technical acumen on these subjects, so any suggestions would be theoretical.

Brewers Association (2017) conducted a study that was based on two national surveys conducted by the Brewers Association on two national surveys: the annual Beer Industry Production Survey (BIPS) and the Brewery Operations Benchmarking Survey (BOS). The Craft Brewing Industry Contributed $67.8 Billion to the U.S. Economy in 2016, more than 456,000 Jobs

Small and independent American craft brewers contributed $67.8 billion to the U.S. economy in 2016. The figure is derived from the total impact of beer brewed by craft brewers as it moves through the three-tier system (breweries, wholesalers and retailers), as well as all non-beer products like food and merchandise that brewpub restaurants and brewery taprooms sell. The industry also provided more than 456,000 full-time equivalent jobs, with more than 128,000 jobs directly at breweries and brewpubs, including serving staff at brewpubs (Brewers Association, 2017).

Mark Snider (2016) of the USA Today did an article about the advancement of African Americans in craft brewing. Snider (2016) interviewed Kevin Blodger, of the Brewers Association, who chairs a diversity association at the organization, who stated, “While the numbers aren’t huge, I think there are more people of color starting to own breweries, work at breweries and be part of breweries. – there is not much advertising budget. It is a word of mouth thing, and if you look at the people that were originally involved in craft beer, it was white men. And we tend to associate with people that look like us.” Appealing to minorities will help sustain craft beer’s double-digit growth, which for several years has outpaced the comparatively flat overall U.S. beer market. Sales of craft beer rose 10%, or $23.5 billion, in 2016, amounting to a 21.9% share of the total market, the association says (Snider, 2016). Further, more blacks are imbibing craft beer. In 2016, African Americans made up 12% of weekly craft beer drinkers, up from 10% the year before, according to the Yankelovich Monitor survey (Snider, 2016). Interesting in the same article by Snider (2016), Garrett Oliver, an African American brew-master at the Brooklyn Brewery, stated, “why is craft brewing such a monoculture?”, yet, in the same article, Mark and Sharon Ridely – African American owners of Brass Tap Brewery (in predominately black Prince George County, Maryland – states that their brewery attracts a majority of out-of-town white customers from the nearby convention center but they do see a good minority population.

I personally feel that this all goes back to my argument of a “culture trap”. The overall culture of African Americans has not been exposed to the potential profitability of the craft-beer market. So, Mr. Garrett’s frustration might not be a systemic issue as far as blatant discrimination or disallowing black beer-brands, but more so traditional marketing towards African Americans has led them away from the industry. This possibility is both an internal and external issue that cannot be easily boiled down as discrimination, considering consumers are largely responsible for driving sales.  Essentially, if they don’t know, they simply don’t know, or if it’s not popular – considering the arguments from researchers presented earlier in this paper – they may not choose to participate or buy craft-beers because it’s not seen as a status-symbol, etc.

Anheuser Busch InBev NV (AB InBev) is a Belgium-based company engaged in the brewers’ industry. The Company owns a portfolio of over 200 beer brands. The Company’s brand portfolio includes global brands, such as Budweiser, Corona and Stella Artois; international brands, including Beck’s, Leffe and Hoegaarden, and local champions, such as Bud Light, Skol, Brahma, Antarctica, Quilmes, Victoria, Modelo Especial, Michelob Ultra, Harbin, Sedrin, Klinskoye, Sibirskaya Korona, Chernigivske, Cass and Jupiler. The Company’s soft drinks business consists of both its own production and agreements with PepsiCo related to bottling and distribution arrangements between its various subsidiaries and PepsiCo. Ambev, which is a subsidiary of the Company, is a PepsiCo bottler. Brands that are distributed under these agreements are Pepsi, 7UP and Gatorade (Reuters, n.d.).

After reading that last paragraph, it easy to see the sheer reach of AB InBev from shelf-space to what we see every single day, from daily sports games to major sporting events such as the Super Bowl, NASCAR, Stanley Cup, PGA master’s Tour, NBA Finals, etc. With rise of the Hispanic population in the United States – which a great thing that helps fulfill the American Dream – I have noticed a rise in beer sales catered towards Hispanic-Americans from Modelo, Pacifico, and Tecate. This is great, but I do notice that it might be another example of a missed opportunity for African-Americans who either assume themselves entirely to be represented within the larger context of society, or to simply not think that this market is for them. Owning a space within the beer industry can have a positive economic effect not only on the black community, largely considering that to many black leaders in urban communities that alcohol or other products are sold within the community by outsiders.

Yet, based on the example of Anheuser Busch InBev NV (AB InBev), the sheer scale of large corporations makes it harder for smaller businesses, i.e., corporations can prevent new entrants into markets with new entrants being a concept presented by Michael Porter (1979). The five forces of competition by Porter (1979) include (1) Threats of new entrants, (2) Bargaining power of suppliers, (3) Bargaining power of customers, (4) Threats of substitute products or services, and (5) Jockeying for position among current competitors in the industry under question. According to Porter (1979) the weaker the forces collectively, however, the greater the opportunity for superior performance. Further, Porter (1979) states, the seriousness of the threat of entry depends on the barriers present and on the reaction from existing competitors that entrants can expect.

If barriers to entry are high and newcomers can expect sharp retaliation from the entrenched competitors, obviously the newcomers will not pose a serious threat of entering (Porter, 1979). Regarding barriers of entry which relates to the threat of new entrants (which would be a consolidated black brewing business for my model), Porter (1979) provides six major sources for barrier of entry which are (1) Economies of Scale, (2) Product Differentiation, (3) Capital Requirements, (4) Cost disadvantages independent of size, (5) Access to distribution channels, and (6) Government Policy. Interestingly, the second major source for barriers of entry as provided by Porter (1979) which is Productive Differentiation relates to the beer industry, with Porter (1979) stating, it is perhaps the most important entry barrier in soft drinks, over-the-counter drugs, cosmetics, investment banking, and public accounting. To create high fences around their businesses, brewers couple brand identification with economies of scale in production, distribution, and marketing (Porter, 1979).

The Porter’s (1979) theory relates to the Tabb (1970) statement regarding African American businesses in which Tabb (1970) stated inability to access credit and limited access to capital as being a hindrances. Capital Requirements are Porter’s (1979) third major source of barrier to entry. Essentially, African American breweries must hurdle over larger firms’ brand-identification that is bolstered by their economies of scale, distribution, and marketing, but also African American firms need better access to capital. However, Porter’s (1979) sixth major source of barrier of entry which is Government Policy, might be to the advantage of African American owned firms (breweries within my example), by utilizing Equal Opportunity regulations under the Civil Rights Act to challenge practices in retailing such as “pay-to-play rules”, which can help African American firms fight for shelf space which is vital in brand identification. Further, Government Policy such as Small Business Administration loans might be an asset to minority ran businesses or breweries.

FIGURE 2 – Michael Porters (1979) Five Competitive Forces

Bray (2016) stated that shareholders of SABMiller and Anheuser-Busch InBev on Wednesday approved a deal valued at more than $100 billion to create a giant in the beer industry that would control some of the world’s best-known brands, including Budweiser, Corona, Hoegaarden, Leffe and Stella Artois. The takeover of SABMiller by its larger rival, Anheuser-Busch InBev, was approved by shareholders despite objections from some SABMiller investors. The combined company would account for 27 percent of beer sales worldwide and would have annual revenue of about $55 billion. The deal would also give Anheuser-Busch InBev, already the world’s largest brewer, a substantial operation in Africa, where it has little presence, and greater dominance in Latin America (Bray, 2016).

VII. Is the Japanese Keiretsu model appropriate for African American Breweries?

The beer market, as pertaining to African Americans could benefits from a Keiretsu model. If there are already large corporations – arguable white-owned – even though the intention of these large partnerships, strategic alliances, or corporations built on buyouts exists, then maybe African American owned breweries should join forces to compete. Imagine a scenario where black-owned breweries, self-made home-brewers (who could be outlets for market research by testing their beer directly with the public, friends, or even at church festivities), and bottlers came together, either by combining forces, by mergers and acquisitions thus alleviating Economics of Scale and possibility limitations to Capital Requirements as provided by Porter (1979), etc. On top of this, imagine these firms coordinating over warehousing space (which feeds into the supply-chain concept of Just-In-Time ordering and 3PLs – Third Party Logistic companies), entering into joint contracts with bottling companies where they could possibly get advantageous pricing for buying more volume, entering into future’s contracts with hops or grain suppliers, sharing workers from brewers or people in offices who do administration work, but, most importantly – yet, not essential – is all of this were coordinated through a black-owned bank who could issue loans and help expand reserves. Yet, even though I do feel this idea could work, yet, when regarding matters of black-owned banking as unifying factor to issue new debt or underwrite equity on the investment side of things, there are some concerns, which are presented below.

FIGURE 3 – Zaibatus vs Keiretsu by Yonekura (1985), cited by Grabowiecki (2012)

Grabowiecki (2019) provides information relating to keiretsu by mentioning that there are two types of keiretsu with the first being horizontal (Kinyu, i.e., financial based), non-hierarchical types (descending from prewar zaibatsu and generally associated with trading houses, e.g., Sogo Shosha), less tightly coordinated, which are connected by credit relations with a common bank and give preferential treatment to partners or joint ventures. Further Grabowiecki (2019) states that Vertical (Shihon, i.e., capital) keiretsu, on the other hand, are networks of subsidiaries operating within large corporations and subordinated to them by means of capital and long-term production-distribution relations (Grabowiecki, p. 182); has a pyramidal structure of shareholding and of personnel transfers (from core company to first-tier suppliers, from first-tier to second-tier, and so on) (Grabowiecki, p. 183) and clearly centralized executive managers (Grabowiecki, p. 186, para. 3).  

Further, Grabowiecki (2019) references Gerlach & Lincoln (2004) and Flath (2005) by stating where the vertical keiretsu operates within an industry, broadly defined, the horizontal keiretsu consists of firms from virtually every major industry in the economy, with especially strong representation in the key industries of the postwar high-growth period that was the era of its greatest strength (heavy industry, petrochemicals, materials processing, and banking and trading (p. 182). There are only six horizontal keiretsu which are Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuji, Sanwa, and Dai-Ichi Kangyo (Grabowiecki, p. 182-183 who cites Lynn & Rao, 1995).

In other words, a horizontal keiretsu is a type of conglomerate or a large business who has their hands within many industries, sometimes unrelated industries, and the first firm, personally, that comes to mind is General Electric. General Electric has multiple business-lines ranging from traditional lighting, healthcare, aviation, power, and renewable energy. General Electric (GE) is an example of a firm pursuing an unrelated diversification strategy, in which Barney & Hesterly (2016) states that when less than seventy percent of a firm’s revenues are generated in a single-product market and when a firm’s businesses share few, if any, common attributes, then that firm is pursuing a strategy of unrelated corporate diversification.

Yet, since most African American owned breweries likely lack equity or the presence of underwritten shares (stock, bonds, commercial paper, notes, debentures), the concept of keiretsu, specifically that of a vertical capital driven type, would not work. However, the keiretsu precursor in the zaibatsu would. Keiretsu, formal joint ventures, and strategic alliances seem more in line with larger more established firms, but a “micro-zaibatsu” could prove promising.  Interestingly, a horizontal keiretsu on a micro-scale would work better where now separate African American owned breweries would form a “family”, zaibatsu, or “cartel”, set up a holding company in a state such as Delaware for tax-purposes, but the parent company would do coordination of operations, supplier relations, marketing, wholesaling, advertising, etc. The profits from retail would flow into in the holding company.

FIGURE 4 – Theoretical Model for African American Brewery Consolidation by Quinton Mitchell (author of this paper)

Sharon Nunn (2017) stated that the number of black-owned banks operating in the U.S. has been dropping steadily for the past 15 years and fell to 23 this year, the lowest level in recent history, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. That has left many African American communities short of access to capital and traditional financial services, according to some banking experts. The 2008 recession hit the black banking sector especially hard, and if the current rate of closures of about two a year, as well as the industry-wide reluctance or inability to start banks, continues, black-owned banks could disappear entirely within the next eight to 12 years. Such banks comprise just a sliver of the overall U.S. financial sector, with collective assets of $5.5 billion, versus $16.3 trillion in the industry overall (Nunn, 2017). Yet, Nicholas Lash, a professor at the Loyola University Chicago, emphasized the decline of black-owned banks as being slightly insignificant presented by Nunn (2017), stated, “Size-wise they’ve been small. – So, their total impact on black communities cannot be very, very large.”. I find these last set of statements interesting but true. Let’s be honest, most Black Americans bank at everyday – white, if you wish to call them that – banks, which is also indicative of how much embedded African-Americans are already into the standard way of American life, from student loans, mortgages, investment banking, credit cards, etc.

This further calls the argument for black separatism into question, with the largest argument being that African Americans are already…Americans embedded with in a system, as with many others regardless of group. Yet, like my argument about furthering strategic-alliances, joint-ventures, or, in my opinion of Keiretsu, it also seems that black-owned banks need to join forces considering the completing fact stated by Nunn (2017), which is, “A prolonged period of low interest rates and intense competition, as bigger banks slowly move into under-served areas, have combined to contribute to the black banking sector’s decline, even after the recession’s end.”

Tanasia Kenney (2016), of Atlanta Black Star, presented five black breweries: (1) Black Frog Brewery of Toledo, Ohio, founded by United States Armed Services veteran, Chris Harris – which has marketability across racial spectrums considering the military veteran status, [http://www.blackfrogbrewery.com/]; (2) Cajun Fire Brewing Company of New Orleans, [http://www.drinkcajunfire.com/home.html]; (3) Harlem Brewing Company, [http://www.harlembrewing.com/]; (4) Harlem  Blue Brewery [http://www.harlemblue.com], and (5) 18th Street Brewery of Gary, Indiana  [http://www.18thstreetbrewery.com/]. Further, as detailed by Snider (2018), there is Brass Trap Brewery of Prince George County, Maryland, the Brooklyn Brewery, and Baltimore’s Union Craft Brewery. In addition, there is a black-owned winery based out of the famous Napa Valley, California, called the Brown Estate.

Higgins, Toms, & Uddin (2016) presented a study into the British beer industry regarding the industry’s usage of tie-arrangements, and the effects of risks and allocation of surplus between brewer and tenant. Further, Higgin, Toms, & Uddin (2016) studied how the British employed a model in the 1990s that was defined by vertical integration controlled by larger brewers over estates of tenants or directly-manage pubs, where the manger is technically an employee of the brewer and is only salary but does not incur most of the risk, however, doesn’t benefit from most of the profits. Yet, this model was challenged by regulators and brewers had to divest portions of their “tied estates” aka pubs or retailers. The new model brought a hybrid-systems where tenants managed pubs and licensees were paid based on percentages of property owned and beer sales margins (Higgins, Toms & Uddin, 2016). In other words, pubs, and retailers instead of being direct fronts from brewers at the end of their value or supply chain, instead gained a level of autonomy, to win more profits, but also, they incurred more the possibility of risk which could hurt profits.

Hybrids facilitate cooperation and reduces transaction cost (Higgins, Toms, & Uddins, 2016). Long-term inter-dependencies and relations contracting occurs in hybrid contexts that are neither hierarchical nor purely market based; personal relationships, reputation, and trust can also be important and counteract the purely cost driven motives that might underpin network governance (Higgins, Toms, & Uddins, 2016). Lastly, Higgins, Toms & Uddins (2016) states that sharing human capital binds networks together and improves their performance, as does the products technical specifications, thereby creating process improvements, and product development opportunities.

Imagine if these companies somehow worked together, while simultaneously operating like a Keiretsu (entering mutual contracts as far as marketing, distribution, bottling, information sharing, and warehousing), but having their finances controlled – at least partially at first – by a black-owned bank. Imagine a beer and wine conglomerate called…John Henry Beverages Global, which is a beer conglomerate, founded by black entrepreneurs, with initial funding and underwriting performed by a black-bank with supplementary financing from traditional banks (Bank of America, J.P. Morgan Chase – who would only be willing to voucher for debt only after profitability forecast are shown – but who could benefit on assisting a minority firm). A collective of breweries who hold cross-shares in each other but is marketed as an all-inclusive beer and wine holdings group that caters to all Americans (marketing itself upon on the Black American experience that inspired the nation as a whole – i.e., the Legend of John Henry which has an aura of hard-work in the face of adversity). Additionally, products can be sold in emerging markets, such as Africa where in certain nations beer is popular and sports such as soccer has a large following which offers an advertising and sponsorship opportunity.

According to Maureen O’Hare (2017), Nigeria overtook Ireland as the world’s second largest Guinness market, and Cameroon is the fourth-biggest market for Guinness and the beer is also brewed in Kenya, Uganda, and Namibia. Africa, with its $13 billion beer market, is the biggest source of beer sales for the owners of Guinness, the British multinational Diageo.

VIII. Conclusion

            Labeling a business as black-owned is not a bad move at all, considering the historical plight against African Americans. For example, African Americans did not have fair voting rights for 77% of the time the USA has been an officially independent nation. Trans-Atlantic slavery existed from the late fifteen-hundreds to the late eighteen-hundreds. 1776 (though September 17, 1787 was the official signing of the Constitution) to 2020 is 244 years. 1776 to 1965 (the year the Civil Rights Act was signed) is 189 years. 189/244 is .7745 or 77.45%, meaning African Americans since a declaration of American independence did not have voting rights for almost 80% of the time we have been officially in existence. Yet, the first recorded African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 after being abducted from Angola (The History Channel, an A&E Network, 2020). 2020 from 1619 is 401 years and 1619 to 1965 is 346 years. 346/401 is .862 or 86.2%. Thus, for only 55 years since 1965 (my father was born in 1959), African Americans have been able to have a political say in the 401-year history of what we become the official United States of America. You can further add weight to these numbers/percentages by adding this following fact by O’Donnell (2019) who stated that by 1890, the top 1 percent of the U.S. population owned 51 percent of all wealth. The top 12 percent owned an astounding 86 percent. The lower 44 percent of U.S. population—almost half the country—owned just 1.2 percent (O’Donnell, 2019). The sheer weight of not having voting rights mixed with the sheer volume of wealth owned by a few white hands, and adding on additional European immigration (Hispanic included depending on how they identify) and brutal Jim Crow Laws has resulted in the African American community statistically being left behind, and, sadly social ostracized for it. Lastly, add the fact that African Americans since the 1900 to 1990 only made up 11.6 to 12.1% of the population, yet, in 1910 – the Jim Crow Era – 90% of African Americans lived in the American South (Bennet, Martin  & Debarros, 1993, Census.gov, p.2).  

Yet, even when facing the residual effects of the past which still lingers on, the ability for the African American community to incubate wealth and prosperity is a noble task which must be taken seriously, e.g., promoting self-confidence in academic environments which values African American history/achievement and continuing to support Civil Rights legislation over fair access to federal contracts, minority small business set-asides, and equal opportunity regarding employment/job recruitment. However, the black community must not only incubate wealth, but it must also have an open-economy model which continues to gain loyal consumers across racial lines, national boundaries, etc. The claims that segregation was better for African Americans might have some truth to it but the economic scale I would argue would always be limited with that approach.

IX. Annotated Bibliography

Arora, A. S., & Wu, J. (2012). How can you activate ‘incongruence’ in ‘customized communications’ through african-american stereotypes? measuring ‘customized communication incongruity’ in advertising. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 6(5), 83-106. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.libproxy.db.erau.edu/docview/1316073349?accountid=27203

Bialik, K. (2018, February 22). 5 facts about blacks in the U.S. Retrieved April 29, 2018, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/02/22/5-facts-about-blacks-in-the-u-s/

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B.E. Research. (2016, December 31). The nation’s largest black businesses of 2017. Retrieved April 02, 2018, from http://www.blackenterprise.com/wp-content/static/lists/be100s/2017/  

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Conspiracy Based Stock Investing? The Bolschwing, Maxwell, GEC Marconi, and Hughes Strategies based on my reading on Operation Paperclip and the ACZS Network by Quinton Mitchell

Opening scene to the film Michael Clayton

Disclaimer: I simply made this because I am fascinated in how the world works. What is going on, etc. What is happening in industry or discovering industries that I did not know exists. This is not financial advice. In no way am I telling or trying to convince any reader of this post (or any watcher of any video about this post), to buy or sell stocks or any other financial instrument associated with these or related companies. Once again, this is not financial advice. Please seek professional financial consultation. I am not a professional financial advisor, stockbroker, bond trader, estate planner, or any related occupation. The purpose of this post (or videos I create related to it) is for educational purposes and to enhance historic awareness based on my own independent research, which I so happen to be sharing in the public domain. Always seek professional financial advice. My current understanding of certain terms or acronyms might not be accurate.

Definitions: Grey Market (https://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/greymarket.asp), Unsponsored ADR, i.e., Unsponsored American Deposit Receipts,  (https://www.investopedia.com/terms/u/unsponsoredadr.asp), ADRs, i.e., American Deposit Receipts (https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/adr.asp), OTC, i.e., Over-the-Counter (Pink Sheet equities) https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/otc.asp ** Note: Many of the firms listed in this post are sold on the NASDAQ, NYSE, London Stock Exchange, Euronext Paris, etc., however, many foreign companies can typically only be bought in the USA via the OTC market but also on exchanges, usually but not always via ADRs, Unsponsored ADRs, SHS, i.e., shares, or ORD, i.e., ordinary shares, etc.) Consult a financial expert more information (see my disclaimer statement).  

Forward: There is a common trend here which is the technetronic sphere, i.e., where the supply chain surrounding defense, telecommunications particularly satellites, etc. These industries are vital for the emerging 5G revolution but also simply keeping the world connected. The definition of technetronic is an adjective meaning pertaining to or characterized by cultural changes brought about by advances in technology, electronics, and communications: a technetronic era. The word itself shines light on Zbigniew Brzezinski’s 1970 book, Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era., which states according to Goodreads.com (n.d.), “The technetronic era involves the gradual appearance of a more controlled society. Such a society would be dominated by an elite, unrestrained by traditional values. Soon it will be possible to assert almost continuous surveillance over every citizen and maintain up-to-date complete files containing even the most personal information about the citizen. These files will be subject to instantaneous retrieval by the authorities.”, and “In the technetronic society the trend would seem to be towards the aggregation of the individual support of millions of uncoordinated citizens, easily within the reach of magnetic and attractive personalities exploiting the latest communications techniques to manipulate emotions and control reason.”

MAXWELL STRATEGY (MEDIA AND IT/SOFTWARE):  (DIRECT) Apollo Management Group (NYSE: APO) , RELX PLC, i.e., Reed Elsevier (LSE: REL), Viacom CBS (Nasdaq Class A: VIACA; Nasdaq Class B: VIAC; S&P 500 component (VIAC); Russell 1000 Index component (VIACA), Reach PLC (LSE: RCH), Future PLC (LSE: FUTR), Pearson PLC (NYSE: PSO), Benesse Corporation (BSEFF, BSEFY). (INDIRECT) Comcast (NASDAQ: CMCSA), Adobe Inc. (NASDAQ: ADBE), Autodesk (NASAD: ADSK), and Microsoft (NASDAQ: MSFT), Disney(NYSE: DIS), (NASDAQ: FOXA and FOX)

This is the Maxwell Strategy at Market Close on 10/28/2020. Note, the markets overall were read and this list is for informational purposes. Note: I am not a financial adviser. In no way am I liable for your own financial decisions.

GEC MACRONI STRATEGY: Ericsson as ERIC and ERIXF (acquired parts of Marconi Communications, i.e., Marconi PLC., and Ericsson owns the name rights), Telent (acquired parts of Marconi Communications, i.e., Marconi PLC), BAE Systems as BASY and BAESF (British Aerospace bough General Electric Company’s, GEC, defense arm to create BAE Systems), TransDigm as TDG (acquired Esterline Technologies which is subsidiary, in which Esterline Technologies was parent to CMC Electronics, i.e., Canadian Marconi Company), Alstom S.A. as ALSMY (formed when parts of GEC merged with Alstom), Osram (formed from GEC and Osram falls are ams AG as AMSSY and AUKUF), Otis as OTIS (acquired parts of GEC. Interesting fact that Otis bought parts of United Technologies which appears in the Bolshwing Fthenakis section), Cobham (Marconi Instruments was sold to IFR Systems which was then sold to Aeroflex but then sold to Cobham but then parts of this were sold by Cobham to Viavi Solutions as VIAV which interestingly makes sensors for Microsoft connect and Microsoft will appear in the Maxwell and Bolschwing Fthenakis section, but Cobham was bought by private equity firm Advent International), Leonardo SpA (via GEC’s radar merger with Leonardo’s as FINMY and FINMF predecessor, Finmeccanica). 

This is the GEC Marconi Strategy at Market Close on 10/28/2020. Note, the markets overall were read and this list is for informational purposes. Note: I am not a financial adviser. In no way am I liable for your own financial decisions.
The Markets at Closing Bell on 10/28/2020. The market had a lot to deal with such as COVID-19, the Election, etc.

BOLSCHWING & FTHENAKIS STRATEGY (IT, DEFENCE, PHAMRA, MATERIALS, AERONAUTICS EQUIPMENT SUCH AS TRANSPONDERS, ETC.): (Pfizer, stock symbol PFE), (Cabot Corporation. NYSE symbol CBT), (Lockheed Martin, stock symbol LM), (Martin Marietta Materials, symbol MLM), (London Stock Exchange, EXPN  but as EXPGY and EXGPF), ZF Friedrichshafen (owned by the Zeppelin Foundation), Northrop Grumman (NYSE symbol NOC), and Goodrich Corporation (sold to United Technologies Corporation UTX [sold to Raytheon and other parts rolled off into Otis Worldwide Corporation, OTIS, and Carrier Global Corporation, CARR], and the tire division sold to Michelin, where Michelin’s stock symbols are SCA on Euronext Paris and MGDDY and MGDDF in the USA), (NSYE symbol JPM), (First National Bank of Boston was acquired by Bank of America, NYSE BAC), (Royal Dutch Shell, NYSE symbol RDS.A and RDS.B), (Elbit Systems, NASDAQ Symbol: ESLT), (ON Semiconductor, NASDAQ: ON), (International Telephone and Telegraph, NYSE symbol ITT), (LGHarris, NYSE stock symbol is LHX), (Xylem Inc, NYSE symbol is XYL), (Telefonica S.A., NYSE symbol TEF), (AT&T, stock symbol, T), (Thales North America, THLLY and THELF), (SAIC, i.e., Science Applications International Corp, NYSE as SAIC), PricewaterhouseCoopers (private – one the Big 4 accounting firms), Aerospace Engineering, Sunhillo Corporation (not listed: https://www.sunhillo.com/), Comsearch (not listed: https://www.comsearch.com/), (MCS of Tampa, i.e., Mission Critical Systems, not listed http://missioncriticalsolutions.net/), (Pragmatics, not listed, https://www.pragmatics.com/), (Washington Consulting Group, not listed, https://washcg.com/),  (Aviation Communications and Surveillance Systems, i.e., ACSS, a joint venture between LGHarris and Thales), (Sandia Aerospace, not listed, https://sandia.aero/),  and (NCR Corporation, stock symbol NCR)

HOWARD HUGHES STRATEGY (SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS, REAL ESTATE, DEFENSE, MANUFACTURED FINISHED PARTS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT): Raytheon (NYSE, RTX), AT&T (NYSE, T), Delta (NYSE, DAL), L3 Harris (LHX), Boeing (NYSE, BA), American Airlines AAL (absorbed TWA), GM, Baker Hughes (NYSE, BKR), (Palomar Technologies, not listed, https://www.palomartechnologies.com/), (Nexstar Media Group, NASDAQ NXST), Venetian and Sands Casinos (NYSE, LVS), (Intelsat, OTC Pink, INTEQ), Howard Hughes Corporation (NYSE, HHC), (Echostar, NASDAQ, SATS) and (Dish Network, which operates Boost Mobile in the USA, NASDAQ as DISH) via parts of Hughes Network Systems, (Ligado Networks, formerly Skyterra, formerly Hughes Network Systems, which is not listed, https://ligado.com/). Orange S.A., via Globecast which owned Hughes Sports Network before being re-acquired in 2003 by Joseph M. Cohen and in 2013, HSN merged with Switch TV which provides equipment for video and audio services for sports broadcasting** These don’t even include the private equity firms who might control portions of his former companies.


Main Companies today: (Directly) Apollo Management Group (NYSE: APO) , RELX PLC, i.e., Reed Elsevier (LSE: REL), Viacom CBS (Nasdaq Class A: VIACA; Nasdaq Class B: VIAC; S&P 500 component (VIAC); Russell 1000 Index component (VIACA), Reach PLC (LSE: RCH), Future PLC (LSE: FUTR), Pearson PLC (NYSE: PSO), Benesse Corporation (BSEFF, BSEFY)

(Indirectly, i.e., attempted buys which failed by Maxwell or illicit use of software, etc.) Comcast (NASDAQ: CMCSA) which acquired Armstad under its Sky Group in which Armstad was owned by Sinclair Research and Maxwell attempted to but their PC division, Adobe Inc. (NASDAQ: ADBE), Autodesk (NASAD: ADSK), and Microsoft (NASDAQ: MSFT) via Maxwell’s Mirror Groups illicit use of their software. Disney (NYSE: DIS) via their acquisition of 21st Century Fox of Fox (NASDAQ: FOXA and FOX) owned by Rupert Murdoch in which Murdoch successfully acquired the News of the World paper from the Carr Family over Maxwell.

Maxwell Communication Corporation > in 1991 after his death the assets were sold to McGraw Hill which is one of the Big 3 Educational Book Publishers (now owned by Apollo Management Group), Reed Elsevier, and Simon & Schuster (subsidiary of Viacom CBS).

The Mirror Group, i.e., Pergmaon Holdings > The Mirror Group was a newspaper and media firm which owned the Daily Mail and Daily Mirror, which were founded in the early twentieth century by Lord Rothermere and his brother Lord Northcliffe. Lord Rothermere was British fascists and elite who may have ties to the infamous Cliveden Set of Lady Astor who purportedly had sympathies for Hitler and Lord Rothermere had relations with Nazi spy, Stephanie Hohenlohe, where Stephanie herself was reported as being of Jewish ancestry and sired a child with a member of the Habsburg Family thus making her a few degrees of separation removed from the events that led to Word War I with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and WW2 such as the Neville Chamberlain appeasement of Hitler. Interestingly, loosely linking the Maxwell’s interests in technology, in the 1980s over 25 scientists in Europe working for GEC Marconi died under mysterious circumstances working on the Star Wars Program, i.e., the Strategic Defense Initiative, which fell under Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger under Ronald Reagan. Weinberger would later go to set up the Rothermere American Institute in…. Oxford with Bill Clinton, a former Rhodes Scholar. So…. Maxwell’s were based in Oxford even owning Oxford United, Oxford has a strong legacy of intel agents with MI5, Caspar Weinberger sets up a policy think tank in Oxford, and Robert Maxwell acquired papers created by the Lords Rothermere where their name was used by Caspar Weinberger… The Mirror Group now goes by Reach PLC which publishes over 83 print publications. In 1991 the company was due to be investigated via an Anton Piller order for alleged theft of software from companies including Adobe Inc., Autodesk, and Microsoft., Action was delayed as it coincided with the death of Robert Maxwell. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/pc-pirates-who-sail-the-software-seas-rogue-programs-are-bad-news-for-supplier-and-user-alike-warns-1556890.html

IPC Media > bought in 1987 by Maxwell > became TI Media which is now owned by Future PLC which publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, technology, films, music, photography, home, and knowledge.

Pentice Hall > s an American major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc. Pearson plc purchased the education division of Simon & Schuster (including Prentice Hall and Allyn & Bacon) from Viacom.

Berlitz Corporation > is a Japanese-owned language education and leadership training company, which is based in Princeton, New Jersey. The company was founded in 1878 by Maximilian Berlitz in Providence, Rhode Island in the United States. Berlitz Corporation is now a member of the Benesse Group (also known has Benesse Corporation or Benesse Holdings Company), a Japanese company, with more than 547 company-owned and franchised locations in more than 70 countries

MTV Europe > Maxwell owned a 50% stake in MTV Europe (meaning ties to the music industry of course). MTV is now owned by ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks falling under Viacom CBS in the same division hilariously as Mirage Studios which gave us Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

Sinclair Research > Sinclair was kind of like the Apple of the UK. Maxwell attempted to buy their personal computer division in 1985 through his Pergamon company but the deal was aborted in 1985 > Sinclair Research was later sold to Amstrad which falls under Sky Group which falls under Comcast (which owns NBCUniversal, etc.) and Armstad’s current role is making satellite receivers since Sky was able to in-source this needed equipment thus cutting out middle-men in hardware, which is a similar business model that Comcast employs itself, i.e., owns hardware but also media content. But Armstad just exists as name, not really a company anymore. https://www.itpro.co.uk/121394/end-of-an-era-as-sky-buys-amstrad



TCI Corporation is one of the earliest companies to be involved in the military transfer of technology to private business via relationships such as joint ventures which helped to lay the foundation for Silicon Valley. TCI corporation essentially was involved with GPS (Geo-spatial Positioning Systems) and the internet, but associated companies via Otto Von Bolschwing’s business ties, spanned specialties such as aerial cameras, lunar and outer-orbit cameras such as those made by Fairchild Corporation, ITT’s vast conglomerate ties, Pfizer pharmaceuticals, Cabot Corporations carbon materials, but also these corporate ties link what was going on in Silicon Valley to NASA, Jack Parson’s Jet Propulsion Lab, Howard Hughes’ vast array of companies, and even Elon Musk’s SpaceX company. This is the “grid”. The satellites, cameras, internet, research centers, silicon chip manufacturers, etc. It is also important to note that Venrock Capital (Venture Rockefeller) via Laurence Rockefeller (who was obsessed with UFOs and donated to Princeton’s Paranormal Engineering Anomalies Research Lab) donated the seed money to Apple and Intel. It sounds fantastical but it is true.

According to OpenCorporates.com (n.d.) the Trans-International Computer Investment Corporation, was founded on 15 May 1969 (Company Number: 713126) and was registered in Delaware. Delaware is important because it was a Delaware Corporation which is a type of tax-loophole where businesses register in Delaware but can operate business anywhere in the United States but not pay taxes. Instead, they pay a franchise tax to the state of Delaware. Many Delaware Corporations are nothing more than PO Mailboxes, but the businesses set up their incorporation, trademarks, etc., with these boxes, but the real business making money elsewhere is considered subservient to the “mailbox”. It is very confusing, but it works.

Der Spiegel (2011) stated, “In 1965, Barbie was recruited by the West German foreign intelligence agency Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), under the codename “Adler” (Eagle) and the registration number V-43118. His initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco. During his time with the BND, Barbie made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach”. Further, Klaus Barbie according to Wolfe (2001) stated that in 1947, Barbie was recruited as an agent for the 66th Detachment of the U.S. Army Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) and the CIC asserted that Barbie knew too much about the network of German spies the CIC had planted in various European communist organizations, and were suspicious of communist influence within the French government, but their protection of Barbie may have been as much to avoid the embarrassment of having recruited him in the first place (end quote). “Vom Nazi-Verbrecher zum BND-Agenten”. Der Spiegel (in German). 19 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.

The next quotes are from Pete Carey (1981) of the San Jose Mercury News, (1) “In December 1953, von Bolschwing applied to immigrate to the United States, and on February 2, 1954, he arrived in this country. After obtaining several menial jobs, he became a citizen in 1959 and his career took a sudden upward turn”, (2) “He became an assistant to the director of international marketing at Warner Lambert Pharmaceuticals Co., developing close ties to the company’s president, the late Elmer Bobst, and its honorary board chairman, former New Jersey Gov. Alfred Driscoll, according to a close associate.”, (3) “By the mid 1960’s, von Bolschwing had become an executive with Cabot Manufacturing. As chief financial officer for its German subsidiary, he developed a $50 million carbon black for Cabot in Germany, (4) “The deal was financed through Thomas Franzioli, senior vice president for the First National Bank of Boston, Franzioli recalls that von Bolschwing then branched out on his own”, (5) In March 1969 von Bolschwing got a job in high technology. He was retained as an international business consultant by TCI, the Sacramento firm. The company planned to commercialize on technology development in the Silicon Valley and used a few years earlier to monitor troop movements in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war according to the firm’s founder, Oswlad S. Williams.

TCI’s subsidiaries in Palo Alto and Mountain View, Advanced Information Systems and International Imaging Systems, were developing a high-volume computer network for business and a navigation system for oil tankers using satellite communications, Williams said.”, (6) “His contacts include officials of the German branch of Chase Manhattan Bank and an owner of the Berliner Handels Gesellschaft in Frankfurt, one of Europe’s largest banks, the memo said.”, (7) “TCI’s high powered directors – one was J. Paul Getty Jr. son of the oil billionaire – thought enough of von Bolschwing to make him the firm’s president in 1970.”, (8) ““He seems like a very polite and cultured person,” said Walter F. Leverton, former vice president for satellite systems of the Aero-space Corp. Leverton sat on the board of TCI.”, (9) “Justice Newsom, who traveled as a TCI attorney with von Bolschwing in Europe in 1969–70, and said von Bolschwing alluded to wartime work for the Americans.”, (10) “Emanuel Fthenakis (Fairchild Corp. senior vice president.), who had resigned an International Telephone and Telegraph vice-presidency to sign with TCI, also traveled with von Bolschwing in Europe, meeting his banking and industry contacts.”, (11) “Records and interviews with TCI officials indicate that Helene von Damm, President Regan’s Austrian born, deputy assistant, translated some German contracts for TCI and invested $1,000 in it while she was than Gov. Regan’s secretary in Sacramento.”, (12) “In 1970 TCI ran into trouble with the Department of Corporations, Several major stockholders were syndicating its stock, selling it to small investors in Sacramento. The Department of Corporations suspended trading in TCI stock, and in 1972 the Sacramento District Attorney’s office prosecuted several stockholders, calling it “possibly the biggest stock fraud in California history.””


Warner–Lambert, associated with Otto Von Bolschwing (now Pfizer, stock symbol PFE) was an American pharmaceutical company. Formerly two separate entities, the first company was started in 1856, when William R. Warner founded a drug store in Philadelphia. Warner went on to invent a tablet coating process gaining him a place in the Smithsonian Institution. The second half of the name came from Jordan Wheat Lambert, founder of the Lambert Pharmaceutical Company of St. Louis, famous for Listerine. The two companies merged in 1955, to form Warner–Lambert. In February 2000, Pfizer bought Warner Lambert along with all its subsidiary companies.

Cabot Manufacturing associated with Otto Von Bolschwing (now Cabot Corporation. NYSE symbol CBT) is a chemical company specializing in carbon black, ink jet colorants, aqueous inkjet colorants (which it created), and aerogels, etc., and it was founded by Godfrey Lowell Cabot, whose grand-dad was Samuel Cabot Jr. (1784–1863) who was an American businessman in the early-nineteenth-century China Trade, a member of the wealthy and prominent Cabot family. It’s important to note that China Trade was the Opium Trade, and families associated with this were the Forbes Family (Presidential candidate and Secretary of State, John Forbes Kerry is of this family), but also the Russell Family where William Huntingdon Russell founded Skull & Bones at Yale, and the Russell Trust is managed by Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. Website. Cabot specialized in Carbon black which is mainly used as a reinforcing filler in tires and other rubber products. In plastics, paints, and inks, carbon black is used as a color pigment. It is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum (Oil. Who owned oil? Rockefellers, Getty’s, 7 Sisters, etc., i.e., oil is needed for most products and these creates the industrial cabals) products such as FCC tar, coal tar, or ethylene cracking tar.

The Aerospace Corporation (nonprofit), i.e., The Ramo-Woodbridge Corporation (TRW) associated with Otto Von Bolschwing is an American California nonprofit corporation that operates a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) headquartered in El Segundo, California. This company was involved in the ICBM Atlas Project, NASA Project Mercury on getting astronauts into space before Russia but also the Gemini Program coming before the famous Apollo Mission, the Titan Program with Martin Marietta (later Lockheed Martin, stock symbol LM, with the material based department, Martin Marietta Materials, symbol MLM, being spun off as its own company). The corporation provides technical guidance and advice on all aspects of space missions to military, civil, and commercial customers. As the FFRDC for national-security space, Aerospace works closely with organizations such as the United States Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to provide “objective technical analyses and assessments for space programs that serve the national interest”. Although SMC and NRO are the primary customers, Aerospace also performs work for civil agencies as well as international organizations and governments in the national interest. The Aerospace Corporation traces roots to the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (went by TRW) and this company was founded in 1901 and it lasted for more than a century until being acquired by Northrop Grumman in 2002. TRW worked with Hughes Aircraft linking this to Howard Hughes. Overton (2013), stated, “Bill Gates, who got his first big break—while only 15—debugging grid control software for TRW.” (Microsoft, stock symbol, It spawned a variety of corporations, including Pacific Semiconductors, The Aerospace Corporation, Bunker-Ramo and Experian (London Stock Exchange, EXPN). Its automotive businesses were sold off by Northrop Grumman as TRW Automotive, which is now part of ZF Friedrichshafen. TRW veterans were instrumental in the founding of corporations like SpaceX. In summary this company, not to be confused with the still existing Aerospace Corporation, still lives as TRW Automotive owned by ZF Friedrichshafen (owned by the Zepplin Foundation), Northrop Grumman (NYSE symbol NOC), and Goodrich Corporation (sold to United Technologies Corporation, and the tire division sold to Michelin, stock symbols, UTX and SCA on Euronext Paris, and MGDDY and MGDDF in the USA)

Berliner Handels Gesellschaft associated with Otto Von Bolschwing was a German industrial bank associated with the Nazis and the Reichmark which after WW2 merged Frankfurt Bank to create the still existing private bank of BHF-Bank, known as Oddo BHF Aktiengesellschaft in Frankfurt. 

Chase Manhattan Bank is now owned by JP Morgan as JP Morgan Chase (NSYE symbol JPM)

First National Bank of Boston was acquired by Bank of America (BAC)

Getty Oil (private company) associated with Otto Von Bolschwing with roots back to John Paul Getty who became rich by opening Saudi and Kuwaiti oil to the world. It still around today but it was sold in a historical court battle between Texaco and Pennzoil with Pennzoil coming out on top and Pennzoil is a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell (NYSE symbol RDS.A and RDS.B). Now it operates mainly as gas stations in the Northeast of the USA. A subsidiary, Getty Petroleum Marketing was sold to Lukoil in 2000, the second largest gas company but this was sold to investment house, Cambridge Securities LLC., but the name of Getty Oil was at one point more recently owned an Australian firm, Westerhoudt AG, run by Olaf Westerhoudt. http://www.westerhoudt.com/global/contact/index.html. https://uk.linkedin.com/in/westerhoudt?challengeId=AQGAeIHhRdFYEQAAAXViCCdeSvKGC-91gUxtvtme54tBXVHXHkKMquc9x7BYqOc_AJ0KwddqZq9gnOem0FH61TcznqAvgNA72Q&submissionId=f757cfdf-185f-4116-1a1f-93f40184d64b   

Fairchild Corporation associated with Otto Von Bolschwing was as an aerospace company which was Fairchild-Hiller Corporation which became Fairchild Industries before Fairchild Corporation. The company invented the aerial camera such as the Fairchild F-1 Aerial Camera. Also, the Fairchild Lunar Mapping Camera (also known as the Metric Camera) for NASA. The camera was carried on Apollo 15, 16, and 17 and took photos from lunar orbit throughout the missions. Over 7,000 individual frames were captured by the Lunar Mapping Cameras, which resulted in the coverage of approximately 20% of the lunar surface. Fairchild Aircraft built the A-10 Thunderbolt and today the company exists as Israeli-based, Elbit Systems (NASDAQ Symbol: ESLT). Sherman Fairchild founded the company and his Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation; Semiconductor Division company played a defining role in the development of Silicon Valley. He held over 30 patents for products ranging from the silicon semiconductor to the 8-mm home sound motion-picture camera. Fairchild is also responsible for inventing the first synchronized camera shutter and flash as well as developing new technologies for aerial cameras that were later used on the Apollo Missions. Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation; Semiconductor Division is now ON Semiconductor (NASDAQ: ON)  

International Telephone and Telegraph (NYSE symbol ITT) associated with Otto Von Bolschwing is a conglomerate spanning multiple industries from telecommunication, night vision googles, etc. It’s brand Exelis was bought by Harris Corporation which is now LGHarris (NYSE stock symbol is LHX) which is the 6th largest defense contractor specializing in provider that produces C6ISR systems and products, wireless equipment, tactical radios, avionics and electronic systems, night vision equipment, and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense, and commercial sectors. They specialize in surveillance solutions, microwave weaponry, and electronic warfare. ITT’s spin off Xylem Inc. (NYSE symbol is XYL) is a large American water technology provider, enabling customers worldwide to transport, treat, test and efficiently use water in public utility, residential, commercial, agricultural and industrial settings. Essentially it creates the technology and tools used a sewage treatment plants such as submersible pumps which includes sewage treatment plants, seawater handling, firefighting (since it is flame retardant cable), water well and deep well drilling, offshore drilling rigs, artificial lifts, mine dewatering, and irrigation systems.

ITT was associated with Otto Von Bolschwing via Emanuel Fthenakis (Fairchild Corp. senior vice president.), who had resigned an International Telephone and Telegraph vice-presidency to sign with TCI. ITT had ties to Nazis and Right-Wing regimes. As for the Nazis, On August 3, 1933, Hitler received in one of the first meetings with US businessmen Sosthenes Behn, then the CEO of ITT, and his German representative, Henry Mann. According to Sampson (1973), “ITT, through its subsidiary C. Lorenz AG, owned 25% of Focke-Wulf, the German aircraft manufacturer, builder of some of the most successful Luftwaffe fighter aircraft. In the 1960s, ITT Corporation won $27 million in compensation for damage inflicted on its share of the Focke-Wulf plant by Allied bombing during World War II.” 1970, ITT owned 70% of CTC (the Chilean Telephone Company, now Movistar Chile). Movistar is owned by Telefonica S.A. (NYSE symbol TEF). Democracy Now (2013) in a conversation stated the following, “ITT owned the telephone companies in Chile, owned the Sheraton Hotel. They were a very aggressive company in Latin America. And they decided they should have their own foreign policy, and they started pushing for meetings with the—with the CIA. It helped that they had on their board of directors a former CIA director, John McCone. And he was able to gain access to the CIA rather easily. There were more than 40 meetings between CIA officials and ITT officials.”.

Demerjian (2007) stated, “In 2007, ITT was awarded a $207 million initial contract by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to lead a team to develop and deploy the Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) system. ADS-B is a key component of the FAA’s NextGen air traffic control modernization program intended to increase safety and efficiency to meet the growing needs of air transportation. ITT is responsible for overall system integration and engineering and under contract options will operate and maintain the system after deployment through September 2025. The ITT team includes its partners AT&T (stock symbol, T), Thales North America, WSI, SAIC, PricewaterhouseCoopers (private – one the Big 4 accounting firms), Aerospace Engineering, Sunhillo, Comsearch, MCS of Tampa, Pragmatics, Washington Consulting Group, Aviation Communications and Surveillance Systems (ACSS), Sandia Aerospace and NCR Corporation (stock symbol NCR).”


Powerful companies that exists today that absorbed Howard Hughes’ companies/divisions are Raytheon (Hughes Aircraft which helped build the Galileo telescope, air-to-air missiles, NASA Lunar equipment, H-4 Hercules, stinger missiles), AT&T and DirectTV (Hughes Electronics), ACDelco (parts of Hughes Electronics after GM bought them)Delta (Hughes Airwest), L3 Harris (Hughes Microwave Tube Division), Boeing (Hughes Helicopter), Baker Hughes (Hughes Tool Company), Palomar Technologies (Howard  Aircraft Technology Products Division creating Automated Wire and Die Bonder equipment), Nextstar Media Group (acquired Hughes’ radio station, KLAS-TV, a CBS affiliate station), Venetian and Sands Casinos (the former Hughes properties were in part acquired by Sheldon Adelson, i.e., Trump’s megadonor), and Howard Hughes Corporation (a real-estate firm that builds master planned communities). Intelsat, (OTC Pink, ITEQ) via Hughes Electronics, but Hughes Electronics and the former company PanAmSat agreed to merge their fixed satellite services with Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder, but this evolved into Intelsat. (Echostar, NASDAQ, SATS) and (Dish Network, which owns Boost Mobile, NASDAQ, as DISH) descend from Hughes Network Systems, i.e., Hughes Communications. Hughes Network Systems, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Echostar today with Hughes’ focusing on Satellite high speed internet services typically helping government but also the developing world. Hughes Network System’s manufacturers BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) Terminals such as the Hughes 9202. (Ligado Networks, formerly Skyterra, formerly Hughes Network Systems, which is not listed, https://ligado.com/)

Sources on Bolschwing and ITT:

Carey, P. (1981). Ex-Nazi’s brilliant U.S. career strangled in a web of lies. Originally published by the Sun Jose Mercury News, Retrieved February 10, 2020, from, http://spitfirelist.com/news/ex-nazi%E2%80%99s-brilliant-u-s-career-strangled-in-a-web-of-lies/

Demerjian, Dave (25 October 2007). “As Skies Grow Crowded, FAA Preps Air Traffic Control 2.0”. Wired. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013

Notes on the GEC-Macroni Scientists Murders of the 1980s working on Star Wars (SDI: Strategic Defense Initiative). How the tech sector links to Ghislaine Maxwell, Oxford, and even back to WW2 etc. Chapter of the ACZS Network by Quinton Mitchell

Key Words: Oxford, Technology, Semi-conductors, software, defense, military, UK, USA

The more I understand Star Wars it seems to have laid the ground work for the current and future mission of the United States Space Force, e.g., having outer-space capabilities (lasers, microwave, photon weapons, etc.) in sync with terrestrial based locations to detect high altitude or outer orbit enemy defense systems and disable energy satellite systems, by linking state of the art of satellite and radar facilities.

Disclaimer: All information in this post is public information freely available to the public. It’s a bit confusing, but these people did die. The question to ask, well, the one that no one seems to asks is, who was the Secretary of Defense during the Star Wars Program? That key paints a larger picture of the world at large in which these people died. It’s a little strange to thing that all these people who were government contractors working in part in support of a secret US program would die without it being known to the intel community. There are a lot of odd coincidences that paints a picture that leads to today. For example, Caspar Weinberger had ties to Iran Contra which had ties to Adnan Khashoggi, who had ties to Ghislaine Maxwell, and Caspar Weinberger would go to Oxford (home of the Maxwells) to find the American Rothermere Institute at Oxford University with President Bill Clinton (who has ties to Maxwell and Epstein, who in turn has ties to Trump), and the Rothermere name comes from a notable newspaper owner involved in the unfolding situation that led to WWII…and this paper was later acquired by the Maxwells. The coincidences are too much.

The nineteen eighties was beyond clandestine (sometimes sloppy) and people to this day got their start in this era such as William Barr (whose father employed Jeffrey Epstein), John Kerry (who investigated Iran Contra), Bob Mueller (who investigated Iran Contra and later Russia Gate), Donald Trump (friends of Ghislaine and Jeffrey), Bill Clinton (same as Trump), Jeffrey Epstein himself, etc. It seems the Maxwell’s trafficked in “information”, hence why his daughter and lover, Jeffrey, peddled into elite circles. Information is power, regardless of what it is. Who is sleeping with who? What is a person’s sexual proclivities? What are new emerging trends in technology be it computing, satellite, defense, etc.? By infiltrating key industries such as entertainment (fashion, modeling, movies), academia, business (Industrial espionage), and politics, this information can be sold to the highest bidder if it proves to be actually valuable, yet, it can also prove dangerous if certain promises are made which are not kept, or people realize you have to much information that’s hard to determine but makes people nervous.

Notes: So we know Caspar Weinberger was the Secretary of Defense in the US, but the scientists died mostly in the UK, but also in Germany, Sweden (if my memory is right), etc. What is the benefit of killing these scientists? 1. They knew too much, but these people seemed like family people or young people with promising future careers who wouldn’t want to jeopardize that. I can get a few scientists going rogue but the volume of scientists killed is disturbing. 2. A enemy foreign actor or actors killed these people. For example Soviets and to this day the Russians are known for being able to kill targets in places such as the UK and there’s a large Eastern European population in Britain. As the Cold War was on overdrive, killing scientists would have bought the Soviets more time in theory in hampering any sort of Anti Nuclear Weapon system, since such a system would result in the Russians losing in the Mutually Assured Destruction balance of power. 3. It seems there were no reprisals for the killings of these people, meaning, that it’s possible British or American intel at the time in the 1980s knew of this but saw it as convenient, in that possible leaks are taken out and then you can blame the Soviets, i.e., killing two birds with one stone. 4. Such deaths would scare other workers into silence 5. It could have been another actor posing as either Western or Eastern intel taking this people out, in order to extract information but get away scotch free in the tug of war between the superpowers, e.g., Israel or another Middle Eastern actor.

COMPANIES THAT EXISTS TODAY THAT ACQUIRED GEC-MACRONI ASSETS: GEC MACRONI STRATEGY: Ericsson as ERIC and ERIXF (acquired parts of Marconi Communications, i.e., Marconi PLC., and Ericsson owns the name rights), Telent (acquired parts of Marconi Communications, i.e., Marconi PLC), BAE Systems as BASY and BAESF (British Aerospace bough General Electric Company’s, GEC, defense arm to create BAE Systems), TransDigm as TDG (acquired Esterline Technologies which is subsidiary, in which Esterline Technologies was parent to CMC Electronics, i.e., Canadian Marconi Company), Alstom S.A. as ALSMY (formed when parts of GEC merged with Alstom), Osram (formed from GEC and Osram falls are ams AG as AMSSY and AUKUF), Otis as OTIS (acquired parts of GEC. Interesting fact that Otis bought parts of United Technologies which appears in the Bolshwing Fthenakis section), Cobham (Marconi Instruments was sold to IFR Systems which was then sold to Aeroflex but then sold to Cobham but then parts of this were sold by Cobham to Viavi Solutions as VIAV which interestingly makes sensors for Microsoft connect and Microsoft will appear in the Maxwell and Bolschwing Fthenakis section, but Cobham was bought by private equity firm Advent International), Leonardo SpA (via GEC’s radar merger with Leonardo’s as FINMY and FINMF predecessor, Finmeccanica). 

Section 1

  1. 25+ Scientist associated with Macroni PLC, working on a program for the Star War (SDI: Strategic Defense Initiative) end up dead, mostly in England, but also in France, Germany, and Sweden. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273526017_The_Star_Wars_Murders_Revisiting_a_Cold_Case_from_the_Cold_War ; https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1988-04-17-8803090394-story.html; https://apnews.com/article/0f96d2d3641717f2e71df0a6fdd99a2b
  2. Macroni today exists as part of BAE, Ericsson, and Telent.
  3. Star Wars was first thought of in 1983 but became an actual program in 1984 under President Ronald Reagan.
  4. Secretary of Defense while these deaths happened was Caspar Weinberger in the USA under Reagan and in the UK under Margaret Thatcher there were (3) Defense Ministers in the 1980s which were Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine (Pembroke College, Oxford), George Younger, 4th Viscount Younger of Leckie (New College, Oxford), and Tom King, Baron King of Bridgwater (Emmanuel College, Cambridge)
  5. Secretary of Defense charged with overseeing it was Caspar Weinberger
  6. Caspar Weinberger was indicted during the Iran Contra Situation in which the Reagan Administration sold arms illegally to Iran and with proceeds for the sale going to Contra Death Squads in Nicaragua, violating the Boland Amendment, who were fighting the Sandinista faction, but these groups were also trafficking Cocaine such as that of the Medellin Cartel, which thus made it into the USA, and would play a role in the 1980s crack epidemic, the destruction of inner city communities such as the African American community (War on Drugs, mass incarceration, etc.). This drug industry was known by the authorities and involved characters such as Freeway Ricky Ross.
  1. Iran Contra involved characters such Adnan Khashoggi, an arms dealer and one of the wealthiest men alive in the 1980 (his yacht was sold later to Donald Trump), and he was the uncle to recently murdered journalist Jamal Khashoggi and the late Dodi Fayed who was the lover of the late Princess Diana, with Diana of course being the sister-in-law to Prince Andrew (who was later incriminated in the Jeffrey Epstein case).
    1. Also, Ivana Trump and Ghislaine Maxwell were friends with ties to Adnan.
    2. Further, the investigation into Iran Contra was oversaw in part in the Southern District of New York under Judge Robert Morgenthau, and the Morgenthau Family is related the Lehman Family (Lehman Brothers Financial Firm involved in the 2008 Financial Crisis) and the Bronfman Family, in which the Bronfman’s involve:
      1. Edgar Bronfman, Sr., who was the CEO of Seagram Empire and was the President of the World Jewish Coalition (WJC). Edgar Bronfman Sr. advocated for closer ties of Israel to the Soviet Union and to this day this relationship still exists, and Russian is the second most spoken language in Israel.
      2. Further, Edgar Bronfman Jr. was in Jeffrey Epstein’s “Black Book” and he was the former president of Warner Music Group.
      3. Sara and Claire Bronfman were indicted in the NVIUM Sex Scandal.
      4. Sara Bronfman’s husband is Igtet Basit, who was the special UN enjoy to the Libya after the fall of Qaddafi (which corresponded with the Benghazi situation).
      5. Lastly, John Kerry and Robert Mueller were involved as the investigation team during Iran Contra, but Kerry and Mueller (later involved in investigating Russia-Gate) were prep school friends.
      6. William Barr, the now Chief Justice, was also involved during this era and he was an CIA operative working in the Reagan Administration. William Barr’s dad, Donald Barr, was a teacher at an exclusive girl’s prep school in New York, which of course hired Jeffrey Epstein.
      7. Edgar Bronfman Sr., his sister was Phyllis Lambert, who helped convicted killer, Ira Einhorn, post a $40,000.00 bail. https://web.archive.org/web/20100831230541/http://dir.salon.com/story/news/feature/2002/10/18/einhorn/index.html
  2. Caspar Weinberger was later pardoned by George H.W. Bush (former CIA Director and Skull and Bones Member from Yale University – also, ties of course to the energy sector).
    1. Caspar later goes to find the American Rothermere Institute with President Bill Clinton (also a Rhodes Scholar) in Oxford, England.
    2. Oxford was the home to Robert Maxwell and Ghislaine Maxwell (alumni of Balliol College, Oxford)
    3. According to Tatler, (Ghislaine) Maxwell recalled that her father installed computers at Headington in 1973 and her first job was training to use a Wang and later programming code. https://www.tatler.com/article/tatler-archives-maxwell-family-interview (Wang is now owned by Getronics, a Dutch IT Firm).
    4. Oxford has a history and legacy as having a lot of spies and intel agents involved in that area: https://www.mi5.gov.uk/mi5-in-world-war-ii
  1. Robert Maxwell would own the Mirror Group of newspapers owned by the Rothermere family. So that is the link there. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-14136044
    1. Rothermere is named after the Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere who was a newspaper tycoon associated with the Daily Mirror and Daily Mail, with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, but also was a fascist and associated with Nazi spy seductress, princess Stephanie von Hohenlohe
    2. Stephanie Hohenlohe received an award from Hitler, was purportedly of Jewish ancestry in part, and also was involved with the Habsburg family since she had an affair with Archduke Franz Joseph’s son-in-law, thus making her a few degrees of separation removed from Archduke Franz Ferdinand who was shot by Serbian nationalists, the Black Hand, documented by French British spy Henry Pozzi, thus sparking World War I. So, she has always been around political intrigue involving the major World Wars.
  2. The Daily Mirror and Daily Mail were acquired by media tycoon Robert Maxwell, father of Ghislaine Maxwell, i.e., the associate to child trafficker Jeffrey Epstein, under the name the Mirror Group, which know goes by Reach PLC. Robert also owned half of MTV Europe. NOTE: Maxwell was snubbed for a take over of another paper, The News of the World, and this paper was given to Rupert Murdoch, i.e., the later founder of the Fox Media Empire (which later merged with Disney).
    1. NOTE: Rupert Murdoch’s ex-wife, Wendy Deng, was reportedly also dating Vladimir Putin, but these rumors were never confrimed https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2016/03/vladimir-putin-wendi-deng-couple
  3. In June 1985 Maxwell announced a takeover of Clive Sinclair’s ailing home computer company, Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a Pergamon subsidiary. https://www.nytimes.com/1985/06/18/business/sinclair-to-sell-british-unit.html
    1. NOTE: Britain’s “Silicon Valley”, i.e., the Silicon Fen located in Cambridge (reminds me of the firm Cambridge Analytica) is tied to Sinclair Computer. The interest in technology in the area started with Sinclair Research and Acorn Computers (the British IBM and Apple at their times).
    2. Note: Cambridge Analytica was run by SCL Group under CEOs Nigel and Alexander Oakes and Alexander Nix. The company focused on “global election management” with an emphasis on the developing world but was later vital in the election Trump and the Brexit campaign. Cambridge Analytica had ties to Steve Bannon and Erik Prince, i.e., the son of Elsa Prince a member of the conservative Council on National Policy which had ties to the John Birch Society and Western Goals Foundation set up by General John K. Singlaub involved in the Iran Contra Scandal, etc.
    3. The chief investors in Cambridge Analytica were Robert Mercer, a former co-CEO of Renaissance Technologies, a hedge fund, started with James Simons (who was involved in the Panama Papers). Robert Mercer was involved in setting up the Super Pac, Make American Number 1 which supported Donald Trump, and the right-wing outlet Breitbart, etc. The Mercers introduced Steve Bannon (formerly of Goldman Sachs) to Trump. The Mercers have donated millions to climate change denial (Source: Pogrebin, Robin; Sengupta, Somini (2018). “A Science Denier at the Natural History Museum? Scientists Rebel”).
      1. Cambridge Analytica became Emerdata, ran by a lady who as associated with the Mercer Family Foundation, but also had ties to Frontier Service Group worker Johnson Chun Shun Ko of Hong Kong, linked to Erik Prince of Blackwater, in which Erik Prince was doing security work for the Pro-Chinese infrastructure project the New Silk Road Project, i.e., Belt and Road Initiative. https://www.forbes.com/profile/johnson-ko/#6ac63c20670a. So, why is an American mercenary helping a Pro-China infrastructure project if something bigger isn’t being planned, such as the full integration of a possibly capitalist democratic china into the global economy, which would be the last domino in full global economic integration, and with a nation like Israel as the chief IT state of the world?
      2. It is interesting because Steven Bannon is no stranger to Hong Kong, having set up a scam company called “Internet Gaming Entertainment, or IGE, had found a novel way to make millions of dollars each month in the exploding online video-game industry. Working from the 19th floor of a skyscraper in Hong Kong, the company sold virtual goods for real money” (Shawn Boburg and Emily Rauhala, August 4, 2017). Bannon had invested in IGE which was being ran by former Disney Star, Brock Pierce, in Hong Kong, but Brock Piece was incriminated as being involved in a rape case in Los Angeles with Michael Rector (who fled the United States as a result) who hosted lavish gay parties in LA which featured people like Brian Singer.
      3. Brock Pierce was a guest to Jeffrey Epstein at his island during Epstein’s “Science Fairs”. According to Kim Masters (2019) “In early 2011, about a decade after the Digital Entertainment Network imploded, Pierce visited the Virgin Islands to attend “Mindshift,” a conference of top scientists hosted by Epstein.” Further Kim Masters (2019) stated that Epstein also invited a NASA computer engineer, an MIT professor of electrical engineering and a Nobel laureate in theoretical physics.
  4. Sinclair sold its computer rights to Amstad in India but this falls under Sky Group which is controlled by Comcast.
  5. Acorn exists today as Broadcom after being bought by Morgan Stanley restructured, renamed, etc.
  6. In relation to the Mirror Group, In 1991 the company was due to be investigated via an Anton Piller order for alleged theft of software from companies including Adobe Inc., Autodesk and Microsoft. The action was delayed as it coincided with the death of Robert Maxwell but was recommenced in 1992. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/pc-pirates-who-sail-the-software-seas-rogue-programs-are-bad-news-for-supplier-and-user-alike-warns-1556890.html
  7. NOTE: Robert Maxwell was also known for possibly being a double-spy or triple spy (UKUS, Israel, USSR). He is buried in Israel. He purported helped sell arms to a young Israel after WW2, and as we can see his media firms were also involved in Software.
  8. NOTE: There was a software scandal with an Israeli American company known ad Amdocs, who were reported by Fox News as having phone records of high US government officials. Eavesdropping software.
    1. NOTE: Israel has units such as Unit 8200 and programs such as the Talpiot Program which are focused on cyber security, sending Israelis to US universities and to work in industry.


The GEC-Marconi Scientists Murders involved the Strategic Defense Initiative which fell under US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger who would later go to find a policy center in Oxford called the Rothermere American Institute, Israel’s potential role in the Stuxnet Program, the Jonathan Pollard spy case, the Amdocs scandal, Unit 8200 and the Talpiot Program, the rise and fall of WeWork which was set up by an ex-Israeli naval veteran, Yuri Miler’s connection to Jared Kushner and his ties to Facebook, and Robert & Ghislaine Maxwell’s and Jeffrey Epstein’s interest in technology such as Robert Maxwell’s attempt to procure Sinclair Research’s home computer….

It is all about the high-stakes world of intellectual property and scientific trade secrets particularly those relating to software, hardware, and what would later become the internet. It seems the Israelis and other states such as Russia in the Cold War, but particularly Israel, are interested in stealing or acquiring Western IT products, ranging from eavesdropping software, software related to rocketry/ballistics, and the list goes on.

Israel seems to have (3) main goals. (1) Consolidation of lands back to Israel’s Biblical Borders under King David and this is because of the strong Messianic religious devotion of the Jews, or., cultural bonds for secular Jews, (2) Swinging above its weight by leveraging cyber and IT to defend itself, such as Industrial sabotage software, eavesdropping software, analytics, Artificial Intelligence, fiber optics, data mining, crypto currency, and military technology spanning satellites and nuclear capabilities, and (3) ensuring economic prosperity by juggling itself between the main super-powers such as the US, Russia, and China, and it seems that Israel might be looking Eastward for future prosperity by working with Russia and China particularly over economic catalysts such as the New Silk Road project. (4) The acquisition of technology secrets and IP which is where actors such as Robert Maxwell comes into play, but this baton was picked up by his daughter Ghislaine and her associate Jeffrey Epstein, after Robert’s death.

Companies still in existence which had ties to Robert Maxwell:

Main Companies today: (Directly) Apollo Management Group, Reed Elsevier, Viacom CBS, Reach PLC, Future PLC, Pearson PLC, Benesse Corporation (Indirectly, i.e., attempted buys which failed by Maxwell or illicit use of software, etc.) Comcast which acquired Armstad under its Sky Group in which Armstad was owned by Sinclair Research and Maxwell attempted to but their PC division, Adobe Inc., Autodesk, and Microsoft via Maxwell’s Mirror Groups illicit use of their software. Disney via their acquisition of 21st Century Fox of Fox owned by Rupert Murdoch in which Murdoch successfully acquired the News of the World paper from the Carr Family over Maxwell.

Maxwell Communication Corporation > in 1991 after his death the assets were sold to McGraw Hill which is one of the Big 3 Educational Book Publishers (now owned by Apollo Management Group), Reed Elsevier, and Simon & Schuster (subsidiary of Viacom CBS).

The Mirror Group, i.e., under Maxwell’s Pergmaon Holdings > The Mirror Group was a newspaper and media firm which owned the Daily Mail and Daily Mirror, which were founded in the early twentieth century by Lord Rothermere and his brother Lord Northcliffe. The Mirror Group now goes by Reach PLC which publishes over 83 print publications. In 1991 the company was due to be investigated via an Anton Piller order for alleged theft of software from companies including Adobe Inc., Autodesk, and Microsoft., Action was delayed as it coincided with the death of Robert Maxwell. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/pc-pirates-who-sail-the-software-seas-rogue-programs-are-bad-news-for-supplier-and-user-alike-warns-1556890.html

IPC Media > bought in 1987 by Maxwell > became TI Media which is now owned by Future PLC which publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, technology, films, music, photography, home, and knowledge.

Pentice Hall > s an American major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc. Pearson plc purchased the education division of Simon & Schuster (including Prentice Hall and Allyn & Bacon) from Viacom.

Berlitz Corporation > is a Japanese-owned language education and leadership training company, which is based in Princeton, New Jersey. The company was founded in 1878 by Maximilian Berlitz in Providence, Rhode Island in the United States. Berlitz Corporation is now a member of the Benesse Group (also known has Benesse Corporation or Benesse Holdings Company), a Japanese company, with more than 547 company-owned and franchised locations in more than 70 countries

MTV Europe > Maxwell owned a 50% stake in MTV Europe (meaning ties to the music industry of course). MTV is now owned by ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks falling under Viacom CBS in the same division hilariously as Mirage Studios which gave us Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

Sinclair Research > Sinclair was kind of like the Apple of the UK. Maxwell attempted to buy their personal computer division in 1985 through his Pergamon company but the deal was aborted in 1985 > Sinclair Research was later sold to Amstrad which falls under Sky Group which falls under Comcast (which owns NBCUniversal, etc.) and Armstad’s current role is making satellite receivers since Sky was able to in-source this needed equipment thus cutting out middle-men in hardware, which is a similar business model that Comcast employs itself, i.e., owns hardware but also media content. But Armstad just exists as name, not really a company anymore. https://www.itpro.co.uk/121394/end-of-an-era-as-sky-buys-amstrad

The Right-Wing Canadian Infiltration of the United States? When something silly sounding is very real. How the film Canadian Bacon (1995) kind of foreshadowed the actual Alt-Right invasion of the United States. This is not a joke…

Why are all of these pundits coming from Canada? Seriously…. They’re all Canadian. It’s always the ones you least expect… Jordan Peterson, Steven Crowder, Gavin McInnes, Stefan Molyneux, Nina Kouprianova, Ezra Levant, Laurent Southern, and the movie poster to Canadian Bacon (1995) by Michael Moore

Is the film Canadian Bacon by Michael Moore prophetic? Was it on to something without even realizing it? South Park by Matt Stone and Trey Parker even has its comedic take on Canadians. But, in reality…why are all these Right-Wing pundits…Canadian? Seriously? Have we become so cynical that people who want to do harm to the United States simply have to partake in our cynicism and disbelief? Laugh with us? There was the curious case of Anna Chapman along with nine others back in 2010 who were caught as being Russian spies and were given back to Russia in a spy exchange at an Austrian Airport (Sources: Russia spies plead guilty in US amid swap rumors by the BBC, 8 July 2010; The secrets of Anna Chapman by the BBC, 28 March 2011). We all should know the odd case of Maria Butina in the GOP NRA scandal. The agenda that is most prevalent to me right now, at least a piece of it, is how Right-Wing Canadian pundits that have gained influence in American politics but these people are simply the proxies of an international Zionist cabal spanning MAGA in the USA, the British Right Wing, Israel, and Russia. Trust me… I know that last sentence sounds silly. It will be called that. But I assure you, if you have not heard of people like Lauren Southern, Gavin McInnes, or Stefan Molyneux and their effects on American populism, you are the one who is out of touch. The global phenomenon of the Right Wing revolution isn’t organic but is actually a constructed movement unbeknownst to those who participate (you’re average Trump rally attendee), to build up mobilization for the defense of Israel and to link a newly rebranded traditionalist Russia with the West and USA on conservatism (whiteness).

The film Canadian Bacon I saw as a kid in the mid-nineties, and it did not leave much of an impact. Yet, I am watching it right as I write this. Be warned the film is full of 90s cheese (which is rather enjoyable in the dark times of late 2020) with some grunge music playing by people who are way too old to be listening to it (trying to capture the 90s Fugazi college crowd?), and a black character even drops the 90s phrase, “Can we all just get along”. Yet, brilliantly in satire fashion, akin to that of Don DeLillo’s 1985 book White Noise, Moore uses absurdity and hyperrealism to capture the time immediately after the Fall of the Soviet Union (I was a child) in which the USA was figuring out where to go considering there was no major enemies and the USA throughout the nineties enjoyed relative peace despite defense contractors trying to figure out how to create new revenue streams (sometimes going as far as fraud). It features a ragtag bunch of local cops (John Candy, Rhea Pearlman, Bill Nunn, etc.) who help foil a plot to start a new arms race. The film begins with the closure of a factory owned by a major defense contractor named Hacker Industries in a blue-collar community near Niagara Falls.

The film deals with the conflict of employment in the time of peace considering many US jobs are based within the Military Industrial Complex. The president of Hacker Industries working with a Washington insider, the President’s National Security Advisor Stuart Smiley (played by Kevin Pollack), tries to stir contempt to help boost the arms industry, even though the President (played by Alan Alda) wants peace. However, the President later meets with the Russian President, named Vladimir of course, to reignite Cold War tensions to help boost his popularity and employment numbers. The Russian President jokingly states that Russia is now concerned with state-of-the-art plumbing equipment and America should not be sore winners. The Cold War was costly to Russia. Later on after their plan to reignite war with Russia falls through, General Dick Panzer (played by Rip Torn) while conducting a briefing in the war-room (alluding to the Dr. Strangelove war room) goes through a list of enemies spanning Mao Zedong, Ho Chi Min, and even floats the ideas of an alien invasion. The President floats the idea of international terrorism (an ominous reference considering the Council of National Policy in real life was prepping for the Global War on Terrorism, and other Hollywood films, like True Lies, foreshadowed the emphasis on the Middle East) but Rip Thorn states that terrorist are just a bunch of people blowing themselves up in rental cars. The President then floats the idea of Canada.

The President’s National Security Advisor later consults a veteran CIA agent named Gus (who is still salty about the Cuban Missile Crisis and Korean War) who argues that Canada is the enemy. While strolling a hallway to talk in private, a hallway adorned with photos such as that of Henry Kissinger, Gus and Stuart have a conversation: “You remember the big New York blackout?” “Yea” “Caused by a Canadian hydroelectric plant, Niagara Falls. The Canucks claims it was a faulty transmitter, we have reason to suspect otherwise…” “Why is that?” “These Canadians suffer from a serious inferiority complex. That’s why they built this (whipping out a photo of the Canadian National Tower). World’s tallest free-standing tower. Our scientist cannot figure out what it is for. Canadians are always dreaming up a lot of ways to ruin our lives. The metric system, Celsius, Neil Young…Jesus. We admired them… Clean streets, no crime, no minorities” “How’d they pull that?” “No slavery…. Their entire government is run by socialist” “But it’s not the real stuff”, Stuart responds, before Gus continues, “No no no…that is where you are wrong…they’ve always had these tendencies”. Stuart reads a newspaper cutout, “Capitalism must be destroyed in all its forms? What is this??”, before Gus interjects, “We think they are a little weird with the socialism stuff… They provide free healthcare, education…. free condoms!”. Later, back at the war council room, the President and his staff float the idea of labeling Canada an enemy. One advisor, an African American man, states, “Hell, they’re whiter than we are!”. Yet, the President agrees to manufacture consent against the Canadians, later slipping the story to the media who starts their campaign of muckraking, Charlie Rose-like panel discussions, CSPAN knockoff updates, etc.

Gus later appears with a CIA team posing as Canadians to blow up a power-plant, but the power station is of course being guarded by John Candy and his crew. The event goes viral and causes the American public to believe the elaborate rouse even more.

A funny line so far is when a character, Kabral Jabar, played by Bill Nunn, while attending an auction of surplus military gear of a recently closed plant owned by Hacker Dynamics (maybe a ploy on General Dynamics, though the logo does reflect Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, etc.), says, “Listen, can we get out of here? All these guns and white people have me feeling nervous”, but John Candy playing Sheriff Bud Boomer, says, “Can you knock it off with the white stuff. You got me looking at em funny”. The fact Michael Moore gave Candy’s character the surname of Boomer obviously alludes to the Baby Boomers but considering this was the nineteen-nineties the term Boomer wasn’t used then as it is now, e.g., a term meant to prove the Baby Boomer’s general sense of selfishness and ambivalence to everything while simultaneously having the need for authority such as surface level politics, cops, simplistic dynamics of good guys versus bad buys, religion, etc.

But the plot of Canadian Bacon aside… There is something sinister coming from Canada in our reality.

The next stuff is serious. I am not…joking.

Canada used to send us quirky comedians. People who came from a higher latitude of the English speaking realm that we assumed had a natural predilection for left-wing, center-left, or moderate politics – granted they do have an important rural heritage as well – considering their single-payer healthcare system, the general perception of cleanliness, a general acceptance of cosmopolitanism, bilingualism, the fact that most of their population centers around urban areas doting the various provinces, and unlike Americans, the Canadians kept closer to their British roots which in itself is seen as more well-read, artistic, capable of understanding the “abstract”, and parliamentarian in nature. The Canadians or Canadiens are our slightly smarter younger sibling who stayed closer to our “parents” as we rebelled to be free but ended up like David Hasselhoff eating a cheeseburger off the floor in a drunken stupor or a film like Robocop makes so much sense it deserves a statue in Detroit.

Americas always saw Canada as the better place to the North with its own unique quirks. Nasally accents and using words like gee, or an over usage oh, or phases like don’t ya know. Something innocent about it. Yet, in recent times, especially in the times that led up to Trump America, I must admit that things have changed about Canada’s export of entertainers. They are all Right-Wingers and often extreme Right-Wingers. This isn’t the era of Jim Carey, John Candy, Mike Myers, Catherine O’Hara, Eugene Levy, etc., but rather we got a ragtag incendiary bunch comprising Steven Crowder, Lauren Southern, Gavin McInnes, Jordan B. Peterson, Nina Kouprianova (Richard B. Spencer’s allegedly – I believe her – abused ex-wife), Stefan Molyneux, and Ezra Levant (a Jewish-Canadian Right Wing Zionist) with his “Breitbart of Canada” media outlet in Rebel Media (an outlet that has hosted controversial figures such as Alex Jones and was linked to helping organize the United the Right Rally in Charlottesville, VA). I am sorry but Ezra Levant looks a lot like the main character from the Cohen Brother’s A Serious Man. Just saying. Is the United States being invaded by Canada? It sounds funny, it sounds like a movie-plot straight out of South Park or Canadian Bacon, but I am not joking even though it is amusing but…not. It is quite easy to do. We in the United States scrutinize people from South of the Border but is the same treatment given to those North of the border, and if not, gee I wonder why?

How clever of an idea when you think about it. Culturally similar nations with a predominately white population which can at times be reactionary to change, in right-wing politics at least, especially that which challenges the notions of conscious and subconscious supremacy (immigration, gender equality, people of color in lead roles, etc.). If the United States were to be invaded, sure, it could come from South of the Border with Mexico, or be from some shadowy terrorist cell, but we often don’t see Canada in the same light, even though the chances of espionage or infiltration is much higher with our Canadian sibling. It is not the Canadian government that is the issue, but rather non-state actors who are betrothed to a well-funded religious-political agenda that spans the United States, U.K. and Commonwealth, Israel, and Russia. More to come on this later.

Gavin McInnes, formerly of Canadian media outlet Vice Media (which interestingly has links to the Manhattan Institute founded by former CIA head, William Casey, via Vice’s former correspondent, Raihan Salam and this institute also has ties to PayPal founder, Peter Thiel – an ardent Trump supporter and owner of the infamous IT firm, Palantir), represents the Oi! Oi! Right Wing takeover of the British late-seventies punk scene and he uses the prevalence of political correctness, “wokeness”, and the elevation of marginalized groups to turn conservatism into “punk” against the mainstream. McInnes created the Proud Boys harkening back to the right-wing street thugs of the National Front in Margaret Thatcher’s right-wing 1980s England. The Proud Boys, supposedly started as a joke by McInnes, despite being known in the public sphere for years were elevated even further in Trump’s debate against Biden in which Trump stated, “Stand back and stand by” when asked about if Trump would denounce white supremacy, specifically when asked about the Proud Boys. The Proud Boys employ a strategy of surface level silliness to divert attention away from their chauvinistic West is the Best ideology. The Proud Boys require a beat-down initiation in which a man must read off as many as ten breakfast cereals while getting beat up. It seems childish and borderline like suppressed homoeroticism (considering McInnes has made-out with Milo Yiannopoulos) or MGTOW behavior (Men Gone Their Own Way) especially with the prevalence of nude male Greek statues representing logos within the Alt-right sphere of thought. The Proud Boys are a sausage fest of angry males who need identity. This playful silliness is not just common to the Proud Boys who have documented cases of using violence, but also Boogaloo, who took that name from a nineteen-eighties pop cultural reference, who gained notoriety when US Air Force Sergeant Steven Carrillo was indicted for the murder of two deputies in North California in 2020 using the Black Lives Matter protests as cover and a means of inciting a race war.  

Lauren Southern and Nina Kouprianova with their “fraulein” looks aer the anti-feminists who represents femininity’s subservience to masculinity yet are outspoken in favor for militaristic masculinity protecting the “race” – a notion notable in the Right Wing [Note: Nina Kouprianova has been interviewed by vlogger, Jay Dyer, who converted to Orthodox Christianity, i.e., the main religion of Russia, and most of his work are directed at the United States and not at the current events happening in Russia. Dyer to me seems to have an affinity with “people groups”, i.e., differences as being ordain in his words by God). Lauren Southern not only went to South Africa to show a biased view of the racial situation in South Africa such as proliferating the white farmer murders (something Trump has tweeted about) but she has also flown to Russia to interview Alt-Right Anti-American intellectual Aleksandr Dugin.

Jordan B. Peterson and Stefan Molyneux represent an intellectual basis for Darwinism with concepts like “fitness”, “Bell Curves”, the strongest survives, etc., which are notable tropes of the Right Wing even though it hides in high-brow discussions of capitalism, intelligence, systems theories, i.e., alluding to the natural tendency to form social hierarchies which in and of itself insinuates a rejection of egalitarianism, etc. Steven Crowder represents the “bro” of the bunch. A frat boy beer drinking mentality which tries to out masculine you and harkens back to the days where the white male viewpoint of reality, including criticisms of others, dominated the landscape.

The fact that many are comedians helps deliver their messages into the public because they can simply state, “I’m just telling a joke”, so there is a level of solipsism and postmodernism in their tactics, where postmodernism comes into the mix because of the prevalence of memes, vlogs, and conspiracy theories/”true history” videos spanning or touching upon Indo-European studies (a gateway into Aryan studies such as the videos created by British Alt-Right vlogger, Survive the Jive), rejection of peer-reviewed and intensive studies such as the Out of Africa Theory in exchange for fringe theories such as Hyperborea, aliens (where aliens only seem to help people of color and not Europeans), etc., in the digital landscape. Postmodernism simply put (if it can be) is when the world has no reference of what the truth actually is, so truth is utterly subjective and an existential process, and the notion of objective truths or grand-narratives are false. Postmodernism was first a reaction to the atrocities of the right-wing after World War II, but now it seems like it’s being cleverly used by conservatives to deconstruct the new accepted truths of modern human rights, diversity, gender equality, etc. These types of individuals in the right-wing sphere in which I am speaking of broaden their base by being elevated on even more popular outlets such as the Joe Rogan Experience. Yet, whenever this side is called out, they can default to victim status by making it appear those who are fed up with traditionalism, patriarchy, racism, etc., are in effect nothing more than “commies”, “fascists”, “Marxist radicals” or “Social Justice Warriors” who are simply shaming white boys and women who love them. To stir this atmosphere of them being the oppressed or muzzled victims, any time a person is de-platformed they cry fascism, even though their very own ideology is the basis of fascism. They are playing games is where I am getting at. Using amorphisms and ambiguity to Trojan Horse their regressive ideology into the mainstream.

I’ve said this before but we truly live in the era of the Postmodern Conservative who uses deception tactics to de-evolve the modern liberal state back into a conservative homogenous state, but it claims to detest postmodernism in the vein of people like Pat Buchanan who popularized “Cultural Marxism”, despite utilizing postmodernism (asymmetric, shapeshifting, “what is truth?” – tactics, etc.) as a tool for its own agenda. Ironically, Donald Trump himself could be compared to Max Headroom, a Canadian character of a former Canadian TV show, where Max Headroom is a digital avatar and Trump in effect is the same with his use of the online arena to bypass the political process and stir up conspiracy theories to protect himself. The right-wing conspiracy culture that led up to Trump was the clay which gave us a Golem like Trump. Interestingly, certain portions of the Alt-Right, those more in line with the quasi-Nazi Occult elements, have even stated that they are using “magic” or magick when they troll online, i.e., they are willing their wants into existence using meme warfare.  

In relation to the Russian elements regarding my “Canadian Cabal” theory, 541,810 people in 2016 claimed Ukrainian descent, there were 622,445 people in 2016 who claim Russian or partial Russian descent in Canada, and in 2016 about 20,710 people claimed Belarusian descent in Canada. In 2016, Canada had a population over 35 million (compared to the United States with is around 300+ million). The number of people of Eastern European descent might not stand out as being significant, but for a much smaller nation than the USA, the amount of cultural influence cannot be calculated. As far as cultural influence all it takes is one person or a few to gain a large audience to disseminate and proliferate messages. Further, it’s much easier to “fit in” with their American counterparts, especially those in the Right-Wing, which is an arena spanning household “normal” center-Right politics all the way to fringe Nazism, the John Birch Society, the Tea Party Movement, Christian Extremists, Traditionalist Mormons who practice polygamy, Qanon, the Rise Above Movement, Boogaloo (which resulted in the murders of two law officers where the assailant wrote Boogaloo in blood at a crime scene – yet, our media unfairly characterizes the Black Lives Matter movement  as terrorists), the Right Wing occult (Order of Nine Angels, Atomwaffen SS, etc.), race realists, etc.

I am not saying espionage is happening from the Canadian government necessarily since they are US allies, but rather individual actors have the ability to infiltrate and change the culture of the United States by appealing to a sense of sameness. The United States could clamp down on these individual actors if they wanted to such as scrutinizing their visa status, look to see if they’re paying taxes, etc., but considering it is Trump America and he needs these people, it seems the Department of Justice is more concerned with a Hoover like condemnation of the left than it is protecting the USA from actual domestic and international agents who just so happen to be “good ole white boys”.

Most of the people I named are conservative and they speak on American politics more than they do Canadian politics. Is this not strange? Do American conservatives even call them out on this? No. Why? Because the white conservative base of America is so lost in fear than they will take anyone that looks like them and tells them exactly what they want to hear. This fear has created not only a business opportunity for entertainers but also a world-shifting opportunity for influencers who are attached to the agendas of larger and shadowy organizations, which I feel links to the controversies surrounding Trump. Most of these pundits are Trump supporters, even if they cannot vote in American elections. These pundits to me are in the web that spans Russia-gate (Israeli-Russian Gate), Trump, the Alt Right, and the US-UK & Israeli Zionist connection.

So, let me explain my beliefs based on that last statement I made. Russia was not alone in influencing the 2016 election, but rather Israel had the technological means and cultural connections within the United States to help sway the election in favor for Trump. For example, the Republican Jewish Coalition with people like Eliot Brody brought up in the Mueller investigation. Israel was displeased with the Obama Administration for abstaining on a United Nation’s vote over Israeli settlements on disputed Palestinian lands. This abstain vote by Obama resulted in a toxic backlash against his administration especially in the Israeli press and thinking that Hillary would follow suit with the Obama Administration’s policy (and that of previous American administrations who preferred to broker peace between Israel and Palestine), the Israeli lobby backed Trump, despite saving face and managing relations on both side of the political spectrum, particularly by denouncing antisemitism even though many people on the right are Jewish. So, in order to get the majority of the USA, which is white, to back Trump, the US Zionist and Israeli lobby spanning politics, media, alternative media (podcasting such as Ben Shapiro, Alex Jones, even Joe Rogan during his phase of platforming Alt-Right guests), Wall Street, and Washington insiders, effectively created and elevated the Alt-Right. This strategy has in part helped to metastasize into movements such as Qanon, which might still seem harmless to the average American, but people running for Congressional seats are openly pushing Qanon, Islamophobia, Pizzagate, and “Holly-Weird” theories.  It could be argued that Qanon is a cult but a cult for the internet age and it preys on the vulnerabilities of those in conservative politics. Qanon has a Zionist undertone to it, which therefore not only feeds into a support of Israel but also Western conservatism. It sounds strange by Qanon could be what helps turn the United States into something akin to the Handmaid’s Tale. A radical religious reactionary state where the courts are run by Noahide worshiping judges. Noahide is a form of Jewish proselytizing to non-Jews in which non-Jews are encouraged to worship the Jews as the Chosen people and to follow the Noahide Laws issued by Jewish clerics.

This reactionary Right Wing (predominately white) movement is filled with the fringe of conservatism (as we saw at Charlottesville) and is protecting Israel even if many of the people in this arena are not cognizant of it. I say this because many people in this arena have antisemitic beliefs but even antisemitic beliefs can be used by Zionist to increase their power. For example, appealing to a Christian Crusader “Dues Vult” mentality in defense of the Holy Land is essentially getting WASP Christians with Punisher skull tattoos, subscriptions to Soldier of Fortune, and a habit of dropping N-bombs while playing Call of Duty, to defend Israel, but these people must be convinced that they still are the majority, in supremacy, or are in jeopardy of being replaced. Basically, certain factions of the Zionist lobby are willing to fund Nazis as a diversion to what they’re doing but also to build a “street team” for Trump, but really Trump is an ally of Israel who will do what they want which can be seen in Trump naming Jerusalem the capital of Israel, landmarks being named after Donald Trump, the annexation of the Golan Heights in the wake of the Syrian War, leaving the United Nations Human Rights Commission, and leaving ambiguity around the contested Dome on the Rock between Jews and Muslims (which is where the Kusher relationship with the Saudis comes into play since the Saudis are the landlords or trustees of the property).

All these Right-Wing Canadians will shame minorities, the LGBTQ community, welfare, etc., but you notice they never talk about Jews. It is not that I want them to, but rather, they are all Zionists or tied to some sort of Zionist organization. They are the cover for the Zionist lobby simply put there to mobilize the majority that leans right into doing that lobby’s bidding. The marriage between White Supremacy and Jewish Zionism is not new and can trace roots in part back to the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century where there were British movements such as British Israelism where white Britons felt they were the chosen people in order to justify the British Empire. This grand origin story mythology is common among most empires or aspiring empires such as the Nazis trying to trace roots to Central Asia or India largely because they simply wanted that land, or even to the United States with notions like Manifest Destiny. Religions such as Mormonism were created during Manifest Destiny and used Zionist undertones to demonize Native Americans so they could take their land and bolster their own credibility (I do not hate modern, every day, and normal Mormons by the way).

The British elite establishment and the Jews who became prominent in the United Kingdom created a symbiotic relationship, and many prominent imperial administrators were Jewish such as Benjamin Disraeli, and, yes, the Rothchild Dynasty (responsible for helping acquire the Suez Canal, raising capital against Napoleon, treasurers of the Bank of England, etc.).

This symbiotic relationship or marriage of “mafias” resulted in the basis for the establishment of Israel in which the British helped the Jews acquire Palestine after World War I when King George defeated his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm’s, allies in the Ottoman Turks who owned the area. Further, even though it is debatable, King George and the British Establishment with the help of American financiers, may have supported the Bolsheviks in order to overthrow the Czar of Russia in order to obtain the lucrative oil fields of the Caucuses. This symbiotic relationship surrounding being “Chosen”, i.e., supremacy, bled into the United States and Commonwealth nations thus influencing the treatment of the indigenous First Peoples and people of color in these regions (such as African-Americans with slavery which was argued with a misinterpretation of the Bible such as the Mark of Cain, Aborigines, Indians of the Asian Subcontinent, Africans in colonial Africa, etc.). The Rothchild’s did fund Cecil Rhodes’ DeBeer Diamonds in Africa and it is well known Rhodes was a Mason and racist, where Masonry in itself, at least that of the English realm has Judeo-Christian undertones.

Manifest Destiny in the United States was simply White Zionism similarly to how the British Empire was White Zionism, but the Zionism aspect is what links them to the Jews, even though these factions at times are in conflict (Waspy elitism of the Anglo-American establishment or the condescending tones that some Jews have of gentiles), but their working relationship as far as global control outweighs the negatives. In effect, these two groups of white Gentiles and white Jews can effectively merge with each other and have time and time again throughout history, even within some old European noble families such as Sophie von Hohenlohe (who spied for the Nazis) or Prince Rupert Lowenstein (the Rolling Stones former manager). Even though the common average white person or Jewish person might not mix as much, when you get to the upper echelons of power, then what’s ethnicity when all that matter is money?

It is my personal belief that all the weird events that happened from 2016 to 2020 in the present were simply this cabal coming to light for the first time to most Americans. The curtains had fallen and the system went into clean-up trying to get ahead of stories by pretending they were actually covering the stories in full, even though they were simply doing what a street hustler does when they play a “shell game”, i.e., moving around cups with a ball underneath it and making people wage money on where the ball actually is (sometimes the ball being taken away with a contraption so no one wins). For example, the Bronfman Clan of NXVIUM with their ties to the United Nations (via Sara Bronfman’s husband Basit Igtet who negotiated a peace deal in Libya after Hillary’s Benghazi situation), Edgar Senior’s ties to the World Jewish Coalition (where he advocated for improved Russian and Israeli relations) and Edgar Junior’s ties to the music industry; Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell’s ties to the British Royal Family and even the Iranian Contra era with characters spanning William Barr as a CIA operative around Reagan’s White House, John Kerry as a blue-blood old money Senator, Robert Mueller (classmate of Kerry) as a young investigator who worked on Iran Contra, Judge Robert Morgenthau (a relative to the Bronfman Clan), Adnan Khashoggi (uncle to killed journalist Jamal Khashoggi and Princess Diana’s lover, Dodi Fayed), the Clintons and the Trumps. This is deep stuff.

The Israeli lobby, at least that led by Benjamin Netanyahu (he does face opposition in Israel) and his allies in the USA and English speaking Commonwealth (various non-profits, social clubs, etc.), understand that hiding behind hyper-Republicanism of the majority in the United States is the best way to keep the light off of them and since Right-Wing politics are often Christian or Judeo-Christian in nature, this religious crux is a helpful variable that increases the power of this strategy. They can appeal to sense of Revelations, Armageddon, Holy War against Muslims, etc.  

Ok, so keep all that in mind, but what about Russia? The truth is that Russia and Israel are closer than what most Americans realize. In the Cold War, the United States utilized Christianity and Zionism as a means of psychological warfare to differentiate ourselves from the godless Soviets. The truth is many Israelis and American/Canadian Jews, or Jews of the Commonwealth are of Eastern European “Pale Settlement” or Russian Jewish descent. Prominent Canadian billionaire, Edgar Bronfman Sr., of the Seagram’s Dynasty, is the father of Claire and Sara Bronfman (incriminated in the NXVIUM scandal), younger brother to Phyllis Lambert (who bailed Ira Einhorn, the Unicorn Killer, out of jail before he pulled a Roman Polanski and fled the USA), and father to Edgar Junior (music mogul with links to Jeffrey Epstein), was the president of the World Jewish Coalition (WJC) and promoted Russian emigration to Israel. Edgar Bronfman, Sr., who was a racist (disapproving his son’s marriage to an African American woman, foreshadowing to me the racist rant of LA Clipper’s owner Donald Sterling), advocated for increasing Israeli and Russian ties. Israel is the crux between the USA/West and the East typified in Russia, and Israel can leverage those multi-national bonds to its favor if the policy of one deviate away from Israel’s own ambitions (consolidating its borders to that of the Kingdom of David and bring forth their messiah, the Mashiach). As an analogy, Israel has positioned itself to the be the woman that two powerful suitors are courting and play them off each other, even though the future of this strategy is for all to…share Israel or Israel to control both, as the Russians and the Americans by way of the Republicans (the party you would least expect) try to join forces.  A White Zionist alliance where the Israelis are the heart of the operation.

So, in 2016, Russia did have a major reason to favor the election of Donald Trump considering the sanctions they faced due to their invasion of Crimea and their tendency to generally annoy the United States by them conducting a “parallel policy” to the USA, e.g., if the USA has issue with Venezuela or Syria, then Russia steps in to show they are friends to these nations in the face of “American Imperialism”. Trump had done business in Russia, ex-Soviets turned businessmen had conducted business out Trump’s properties, Trump has links to many ex-Soviets in one way or another (Tevfik Arif, Tamir Sapir, Lev Leviev, etc.), many people in his cabinet had ties to Russia such as Rexx Tillerson for Exxon Mobil, Michael Flynn was called into suspicion, Rand Paul delivered correspondence to Moscow for Trump, and Mitch McConnell and other prominent Republicans have ties to Leonard Blvatnik etc.

The fact that Melania Trump is of Slovenian descent and Trump’s first wife, Ivana Trump, is of Czech descent, both former Soviet nations (which in and of itself is not a problem, i.e., they shouldn’t be shamed for this), I could imagine Donald Trump has a large following in former Soviet States as far as the media, tabloids, and news. Nations such as Hungary, Austria, Germany even (especially in the former Soviet Eastern part of the country which is under-developed in relation to the Western part of the nation), etc., has seen a rise in Right-Wing populist politics emulating the success of Donald Trump, and Russia sees this Right-Wing Revolution as good since they have ditched the Soviet style and in exchange are marketing themselves as Orthodox traditionalists against the depravity of liberal democracies, modernity, secularism, human rights, etc. This Right-Wing revolution in Eastern Europe which benefits Russia in its “rebranding campaign” can weaken the primacy of the United States by threatening NATO and calling into question the usefulness of the United Nations (the United Nations has always been a target of Right-Wing organizations such as the John Birch Society which helped coin concepts such as a one-world government. Interesting fact is that the Neo-Nazis in America trace roots back to an internal conflict within the John Birch Society in which a Revilo P. Oliver left the organization because he claimed the JBS was becoming too Jewish, which, even though I reject Nazism and white supremacy, he may have had a point considering post-war Neo-conservatism had many notable Jews such as Henry Kissinger, Barry Goldwater, Milton Friedman, etc.).   

In conclusion, Canada is awesome. It is still seen as an example of a modern and developed nation that fosters diversity, education, public investments, and a rational well-balanced foreign policy. Yet, all of that aside, many Right-Wing pundits are coming from Canada. This to me is no coincidence but rather proof of a larger cabal using these low-level actors, podcasters, and vloggers, to infiltrate the United States political arena by appealing to a sense of sameness and being the “online street team” for Trump. The question is will American conservatives start to call it out, or are they so enthralled with the insanity of Trumpism, that they will take support from any source no matter how nefarious it truly is?

#film #politics #review #canada #american #zionism #2020

Tool, Pulp Fiction, Fascism, Fräuleins, Cops and George Floyd: How Pulp Fiction’s Pawn Shop scene is analogous to George Floyd’s Death by Quinton Mitchell (C).

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What is the difference between the many cop deaths shown on TV and a snuff film? This paper is for Elijah McClain, George Floyd, Trayvon Martin, Daunte Wright, Kurt Reinhold, Tamir Rice, Breonna Taylor, Alton Sterling, Eric Garner, Sandra Bland, Jacob Blake, Michael Brown, Kristiana Coignard (White), Terence Crutcher, Philando Castile, Botham Jean, Amadou Diallo, Rayshard Brooks, Sean Monterrosa (Latinx), Walter Scott, Samuel DuBose, Manuel Ellis, Zachary Hammond (White), Ricardo Hayes, Aiyana Stanley Jones, Michael Lee Marshall, Marc Ramos, Kathryn Johnston, Rayshard Brooks, Atatiana Jefferson, Isiah Murrietta-Golding, Sureshbhai Patel (Asian – Indian Subcontinent) etc. These names include black, white, AAPI, and Hispanic but there are too many names to mention.

Who would have thought that the lyrics of the band Tool would be a great way to analyze racial injustice? Or, who would have thought that the sheer terror presented in Pulp Fiction’s pawn shop scene would be a microcosm of the terror that underlies our very feet within the real world – both past and present?

Tool released their album, Undertow in 1993. I remember being a kid during the ,glorious” days of the 1990s watching MTV, maybe it was on Beavis and Butthead, and seeing Tool’s music video for Prison Sex. It did not terrify me surprisingly, but it did leave a lasting mark as far as Tool’s ability to take things into realms that are dreamlike or nightmarish, or later what I would learn would be called the Jungian. Music at this point was taking on more of a darker sensibility post-Nirvana with bands like the Smashing Pumpkins, Nine Inch Nails, etc. Tool was my first introduction to Industrial-type metal, which was later reinforced by my discovery of Nine Inch Nails, especially with their music video Closer around 1996. The next year after Tool’s Undertow was released, I remember being a kid and overhearing Entertainment Tonight and they were talking about Spike Lee having issue with Quentin Tarantino’s new film, called Pulp Fiction, largely for the liberal use of n-word. I was aware of Spike Lee of course since my parents were film fans and I was alive in the late-80s to early 90s Black Revival of the arts (It’s a Different World, Roc, Do the Right Thing, the works of Robert Townsend, etc.), i.e., we had plenty of Jet magazines stashed around the house.

I did not know much about Tarantino and never really considered him a big director in the early to mid-nineties, because this was at a point where a director was simply a director, i.e., I didn’t see things as art yet since I was just a child. The only film that reminded me of Tarantino up to that point (I may have seen snippets of True Romance at my grandmother’s house in Miami), was the film Swingers by Jon Favreau, in which Tarantino is only referenced. The film by Favreau depicts a crew of young white horny males in Los Angeles searching for action, work, love, etc. They all party and live in apartments, but there is a poster of Reservoir Dogs within one of them, and one of the main characters who gets into a parking lot altercation draws a gun to the rebuke of his friends played by Favreau and Vince Vaughn. Essentially, early Tarantino represented film for angry white boys. A type of power fantasy for white males to envision themselves as hustlers, heist man, crooks, not taking junk. Fantasy about liberally dropping n-bombs and making dirty jokes in midnight diners about the color of this or that waitresses’ pubic hair. We have to remember that Tarantino did come on the scene as gangster rap had already won popularity, so with black males of rough backgrounds now seen as in vogue, and it’s almost as if Tarantino knew he had a market in the alternative. Masculinity wasn’t simply The Marlboro Man or Arnold Schwarzenegger but men like Tupac where Tupac in our racist past would be called a “mouthy n-word” or Denzel Washington would’ve been called an “uppity n-word” or a black dandy for simply breaking boundaries. Hell, even up to this day we see students busted For blackface, NBA owners caught dropping n-bombs, etc. Yet, in the film Swingers by Favreau, one of the men who attempt to fight Patrick Van Horn’s character (named Sue) is depicted as a white hip hop poser, insinuating that white adoption of black culture was prominent which it was, but to many it was seen as odd or out of place.

However, in recent times, well, the early 2000s, Tarantino has actively tried to eradicate his older perception as the “angry white boy director” with his Revenge Trilogy such as Kill Bill featuring a female lead, Django Unchained featuring an African American lead, and Inglorious Bastards featuring Jewish men in roles of strength and strong, developed, non-sexualized female characters. Including Jackie Brown with Pam Grier and even Randy Brooks as Holdaway in Reservoir Dogs, one can see an admiration that Tarantino has for black actors within American cinema, despite the truth that most black actors up until recent times were often caricature or side-pieces. It was not that Tarantino was racist per se, but rather he was recycling tropes of American cinema which were regressive (a nice word), yet, his defenses to his earlier works did display a lack in his understanding of why people reacted which is arguably a sign of…privilege. But, to get that out of the way, in this piece in no way am I considering Tarantino to be racist at all and he is not the central focus. He simply had growing to do, which we all do.

I didn’t see Pulp Fiction which was released in 1994 until way later in high school around 2003, and only because a girl I sat next to in chemistry class, stated she saw it on TV and it was crazy. Curious, I saw it, and it was crazy. This was before I would later fall into a fascination with postmodernism be it Don DeLillo, the works of Cronenberg, etc. After seeing Pulp Fiction, I saw the infamous scene of the rape in the pawn shop by Zed on Marsellus Wallace. But, now in 2020, seeing George Floyd call for his mother, while this smaller white male sits on his neck, instantly recalled Tool’s song Prison Sex. “Shit, blood and cum on my hands”, “Do unto others what has been done to me. Do unto others what has been done to you”, “I’ve got my hands bound. My head down, my eyes closed”, “You look so precious”, “Released in this sodomy”, “You’re breathing so I guess you’re still alive”. A white male cop taking pleasure in exerting his power over a black male while the black male calls for his mother. Effectively, the cops took the notion of calling a black man “boy” to the next level and all for the public to see.

Scene from Prison Sex by Tool

Even in George’s death, the sadness that people felt when they saw the scene but also heard those words, effectively stripped George of his honor, his masculinity, and forever left the image of him as a helpless victim with no means of fighting back legally, which makes something already tragic into something even more sinister. For example, when it comes Nazis, the terrifying thing is not simply how they came to be and all the atrocities they did, but rather how in a sense…they got away with it. Even in death, their power lingered as people tried to cope with their humanity. White supremacy in all its forms sees the world though a clinical, materialist, Darwinist struggle to survive, and it realizes that time is the greatest alibi, so the more damage or assault it can do, the more legacy it can leave. They do not want to just kill; they want to haunt. That is where their power comes from. The ability to make “sexy” their cruelty by turning it into legend which therefore time and time again will be analyzed in literature, film, TV, etc. This concept was explored by Don DeLillo in his 1986 National Book Award winner, White Noise, in which the protagonist, Jack Gladney, is a professor of Hitler Studies at a small liberal arts school in a pop culture department, which was done by DeLillo to explore how we assign objects (people, events, etc.), different meanings over time. DeLillo was right. Think about it. All one must do is turn on History Channel or History Channel 2 and find a documentary on Hitler such as Hitler’s Mega Weapons, Nazis and the Occult, or Hitler’s Sex Life. Essentially, we have turned a monster into an immortal pop culture celebrity, thus, it should not surprise you that decade after decade, a few people take his atrocities not as atrocities but rather as achievements. As a black man, I have heard at parties, “Hitler was a bad guy but…he had some good ideas”.  

There are many similarities between the Pawn Shop scene in Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction and the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2020. First off, George Floyd and Ving Rhames, obviously are two large muscular black males, thus they can create a sense of fear in others, which is unfair, but unfortunately how the iconography of the black male has been presented within American, Western, and even Asian societies. Secondly, both men suffered assaults with one obviously in reality and the other on film, yet, both men’s assailants were white males with Derek Michael Chauvin as a real life police officer whereas Zed in Pulp Fiction played by Peter Greene is a security guard. They instantly have positions of power, with Chauvin having real power and protection based on the law, whereas Zed has power in an almost pathetic way, yet, his “mall cop status” is still symbolic of the quest to dominate. Zed represents the angry white male, typically blue collar or low-income who fear what they perceive as competition. If Zed were a real person, he would vote for Donald Trump.

Both men, one real and one fictional, both represent power, with Derek Chauvin representing power through the notion of law and order, whereas Zed’s sense of power comes from sex and domination. But is there a difference? A white male cop dominating what he might perceive as his sexual threat. Cops are people. They watch CNN, Tucker Carlson on Fox News, were conditioned to vote Republican or Democrat, surf sub-Reddits, leave comments we might regret on social media, show up to work drunk, watch pornography (gauging penis sizes since masculinity has been reduced to nothing more than this in our postmodernist world or getting angry if they stumble on the “interracial” section), scroll through Instagram, etc.

It is my personal belief that the failures of our society are largely because we simply do not call out the reasons for the actions underlying the atrocities. Simple: fear, sex, power, needing attention, etc. That would be too easy to simply call it like it is. What am I about to say next is in no way meant to shame female sexuality, agency, and/or power. Rather, I am simply pointing to how sex and fascism are correlated and how it hides in our midst. For example, if you are familiar with Instagram it is not hard to find the hundreds of thousands if not millions (as it seems) models which post daily. Hyper-sexual, out of reach, depictions stimulating sexual desires for the droves of bored males equally as lost regarding purpose in our postmodern landscape which has now been defined by gender dynamics, intersectionality, the pressures of globalism, wealth disparity in a society fueled by conspicuous consumption, etc. However, within this category there is what I call the Freulein industry, i.e., sexually provocative women who are conservative and simply seem to be there to promote sexual stimulation for the support of supremacy. The reality is that the USA is of Germanic origins with German’s accounting for many of the white population, but Anglo-Saxon culture (English) is a branch of Germanic culture, thus, it seems safe to say that our white culture has many roots within the Germanic frame of thought, its aesthetics, etc. Something that would be interesting to explore another time. Regardless, these models use a mix of conservatism, country music, militarism, guns, Pro-Trump rhetoric, doses of cultural appropriation (sexually charged hip hop music), but all of this, to them at least, is justified by simply leaving a Biblical quote underneath their OnlyFans link. This sort of sexual stimulation is meant to embolden the “white knight mentality”, i.e., to breed for and defend the Western “white” race, and women simply are there to serve men by offering a type of reward for good and noble service. It is also an attempt at winning the race for being the most desired, because the most desired in theory becomes the most protected. This mythology making linked to sexuality is nothing new, and arguably has been deployed by groups such as the Nazis, who in turn were appropriating dark age and medieval notions of masculinity and femininity as they revolted against the modern age (while ironically using modernist practices to assault people). Yet, it is 2020, which just goes to prove that human nature has changed but hasn’t, and despite these people operating in code through the concept of sexually stimulating content, they are in fact aware of their intended audiences and overall “agenda”.

I am no Freudian scholar but based on “pop cultural and academic osmosis”, I feel it is safe to say that Freud simply reduced our activity to sexual behavior, or, rather sex was central to his analysis. From what I know of the time in which Freud existed, the Austrian intellectual scene in which he inhabited, gave us many pre-modernist or modernist thinkers who foresaw the sexual undertones and tension soon to come within the unfolding complex landscape of early democratic experiments, the consequences of industrialization, the liberation of females, and the permeation of the Scientific Method into all facets of life. I mean, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, whose last name the term Masochism comes from was active during the times of Freud, Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Isidor Isaak Sadger (with the later compounding the terms of sadism and masochism utilized by Krafft into the term S&M). Masoch interestingly wrote Venus in Furs (1870), which  interestingly inspired the song by the Velvet Underground & Nico (Fact: Nico was a racist), whom were under the tutelage of Andy Warhol, who in turn popularized “pop art”, which is a trope within postmodernism, where postmodernism – despite what a neoconservative will argue – is a consequence of capitalism as it bled into its post-capitalist phase. Masosch was alive during the time of Freud, Jung, etc., but this Austrian Renaissance also produced later thinkers such as Otto Weininger who wrote Sex and Character (1903) which speaks about the Madonna-Whore complex (adding in some self-hating Anti-Semitism and plenty of misogyny), Franz Kafka, Stefan Zweig, etc. As far the S is S&M it comes from the infamous Marquis de Sade, who was a libertine writer before the French Revolution. As a noble of the French nobility he was able to use his position of power to engage in sexual debauchery including reported kidnapping, rape, molestation, drugging, etc. Ironically, de Sade despite being imprison at the Bastille was later a member of France’s National Convention as a delegate, and some could say Sade’s writings were existentialism before existentialism and taken to its sexual extremes, and themes such as this were explored by modern horror and LGBT author, Clive Barker, in his novel, The Hellbound Heart (1986), later adapted into the film Hellraiser (1987).

Back to Pulp Fiction and the George Floyd death, both Derek’s and Zed’s power overlap with Zed simply being the hyperreal avatar of the white supremacist police state of a waning capitalist society where the underlying anima of such a state is a harsh hierarchical order built upon ideologies that promote domination and submission (patriarchy, racial segregation, worker exploitation, militarism for the benefit of economic elites, etc.). Regardless of politics or sex, the underlying notion is power and this Darwinist viewpoint is exemplified in the notion of policing in the United States which itself was built upon a racial caste system, or, what I like to call a psycho-sexual-racial caste system. I insert the “psycho-sexual” into the term because fear of the black male in a white male dominated society, often dealt with sexuality such fear of the black male “violating” white purity, fear of miscegenation or racial mixing, etc.

Basically, it is all about competition and monopolizing resources to make survival easier under this racial Darwinist viewpoint, but the underlying reason is arguably insecurity and fear, which ironically is not superior at all.

Pulp Fiction is a key example of postmodern fiction. It employs an irregular plot structure, distorts our notions of time, blurs high art with low art such as infusing dialogue and world-building with pop culture references (almost to the point where it could be argued all the characters are simply inhabiting a comic book, i.e., pulp is a genre of comic), distorts the viewers notion of stability by mixing seemingly safe environments with very dangerous criminal underbellies creating a feeling where the characters are mere mortals under the cruel games of “the gods” (something I notice when watching Cohen Brothers’ films, e.g., Fargo or Burn After Reading, or a similar concept such as that of H.P. Lovecraft’s notion of cosmic horror, e.g., humans are insignificant players in a larger cosmic game), and plays with psychoanalysis relating to power dynamics in a relativistic or nihilistic universe typically through depictions of sexual fetishism, e.g., in the novel, White Noise (1987), where the main character, Jack Gladney, has a fetish for his wife’s leggings which makes him fantasize about masculinity in antiquity, or, the protagonist in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita (1955) – an example work of the cracking of modernity into postmodernity – who has an obsession with prepubescent females, or, the infamous scene of coprophagia in Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow (just one of the many types of fetishes depicted in the novel, e.g., sex slaves, orgies, etc.).

Postmodernism is basically what it sounds like, i.e., “after modernity”, which, in other words, is a study of when humanity reaches its apex after the successes of modernity (and its failures). Society finds itself at the end of its logical conclusion, thus becoming consumed by a reality which ceases taking on an objective truth(s) and takes on a subjective, multi-dimensional, relativistic sentiment. There is no truth. This is not an original point I am making, but the show Seinfeld in a lite sense is a nihilist show, i.e., it is a show about nothing filled with characters, in an advanced civilization, lost in some comedic tragedy getting into random adventures. Postmodernity is when a machine becomes so efficient and reaches an apex that it starts to make copies of itself and people can’t distinguish between what is real or what is not, or what is original or what is a knock-off, which is a theme explored in Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle (1962), or even the film, The Matrix by the Wachowski Sisters, which in itself was influenced by real-life French thinker Jean Baudrillard’s Simulacra and Simulation (1981).  

Other common notions, tropes, or pastiches of postmodernism is a sense of transgression, a tendency to merge things such as in “postmodernist era science fiction” with the notion of cyborgs or mutants (Robocop by Paul Verohoeven – released 1987), punk (anarchy, dystopia), cynicism, pseudo-science posing as hard sciences since what is science? (aliens, mind reading, tabloids, conspiracy theories),  cyberpunk which is a punk sentiment in a technologically advanced world dominated by corporations (Neuromancer by William Gibson – published 1984), informational overload, things that are nuclear (we’re so advanced we created weapons that can destroy us ten times over), and the deification of symbols largely from capitalist systems (Mickey Mouse is arguably as revered as Jesus on the Cross as far as recognizability), etc. Symbols and semiotics are an important part of the postmodernist condition and could be argued as the key signifier of a society entering or being within a postmodern epoch. For example, the concept of memes, can only be understood in theory if one has a reference of what is being shown, thus a meme requires a deep level of understanding and juxtaposition against other objects, but there’s so many worldviews that the symbol can take on multiple meanings, or, if someone were to unearth a meme somehow in the far future they wouldn’t be able to properly understand it without reference to something else. A meme is not simply a picture, but really an agglomeration of multiple reference points, often only understood or with significance at a given moment in time.

Since postmodernism rejects objective truth claims thus making it relativistic and/or nihilistic in nature, postmodernism arguably falls under existential philosophy of the Continental School (Descartes, Spinoza, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus, etc.). Existential philosophy itself doubts an objective view of reality, such as Sartre’s statement that existence precedes essence, and this existential umbrella of thought might deal with simplistic notions of doubt or angst, whereas extreme versions bleed into solipsism. People inhabiting postmodern societies are effectively bots reduced to Darwinist power dynamics inhabiting a reality of simulations, so because we’re so far removed from our natures, despite our advancements, we end up transgressing simply to reattach to nature, hence the propensity of “hardcore” content within our current landscape albeit pornography, blood sport, empirical managerial sciences which are simply fancy ways of saying the strongest survives, etc. Further, since there is no soul, humans instead are reliant alone upon their cognition, i.e., their egos, but since reality has no truth, the general sense of the zeitgeist ceases being solid but rather takes on something neurotic, jittery, or schizophrenic. In a postmodernist world, we are nothing more than base material without free will languishing under illusions, who can be evolved or forged into new objects, and are reduced to simply fulfilling our base desires of keeping our material in existence, but lacking any real explanation of why we exists since any truth is beyond our cognitive capabilities.

My whole breakdown of postmodernism, at least to the degree I can understand it (a true postmodernist would reject any claim of definition), is important to the Pawn Shop scene in Pulp Fiction. A Pawn Shop is a heap of collected artifacts (nostalgia) but also currently valuable things (technology, equipment, etc.) so it contains an anachronistic element, i.e., it has objects from different decades and eras, and the value of such goods are relative to whomever wishes to buy them, or even the seller of said objects who can create value in an ad hoc fashion by simply gouging the price to create the perception of a higher intrinsic value. Objects are disregarded, dreams are sold away, and value is created on whim. Pawn Shops are also predatory in nature in that people give up their items for loans, but many people are already suffering from economic hardship. So, when one is entering into a Pawn Shop, they are really entering into a capitalist space with postmodern potential. It is like how in the Man in the High Castle (1962) by Philip K. Dick,  the character Robert Childan has an antique shop full of American regalia but some of his items are forgeries, but to the buyer they can’t differentiate.

The Pawn Shop is the orphanage or burial ground of capitalism. Capitalism creates the simulation by glossing its existence over with empirical data, but underneath the surface is nothing more than Precambrian desire to survive or dominate. It reduces humanity into material chasing material to make more material, and since material is separate from the concepts of the spiritual, capitalism, similarly to Marxism both reduce humanity to concepts such as power, dynamics, intersections, etc. We are mere material within the flux of time and space without any real understanding of why we are here, but capitalism romantically dolls up Darwinism to promote the individual, whereas Marxism romantically dolls up Darwinism to promote the collective.

The Pawn Shop in Pulp Fiction is a microcosm of the USA which produces capitalist junk, but the owner and Zed represent the white supremacist underbelly of this ideology, hence, it is not a surprise that Zed picks Marsellus to be assaulted. Zed himself craves power but the power he was able to obtain as a security guard is basically a knock-off of real power, so not having power, he’s wired to dominate to compensate, and his identity being central, which is  his race, gender, position, and etc., attempts to dominate any antithesis to his identity whenever it presents itself. To me the fact that Zed picked Marsellus first to be raped means that race of course plays a larger role in his insecurity relating to power, but since one gets physical gratification from sex, Zed also represents a desire for what it is he is not. It is no different than a tribal chieftain wanting the head of a worthy enemy or how a cannibal wants to consume a person to obtain their symbolic power or essence. Interestingly, Bruce Willis’ character was not actually sparred from assault, but rather he simply got away, but despite Zed’s meaningless game of “einy meeny miny moe”, Bruce was spared most likely because of his privilege, but only temporarily. Butch (Bruce Willis) easily could’ve left the Pawn Shop after killing the Gimp, by reducing Marsellus’ fate to the strongest survives, but instead finds honor in himself and a common humanity with Marsellus to save him. Butch thus was not a bystander but an active participant in fighting against the injustices of Zed and Maynard (white supremacy in a capitalist wasteland obsessed with power, domination, and race). Butch did his part by challenging this “system” which gave Marsellus enough time to avenge himself.  

So, let us relate this to our world with police and the general population. Marcellus and Butch are both under threat by Zed and Maynard, similarly to how both the white and black populations are subject to police abuse, yet, the disproportionate level of abuse that Marsellus experienced over Butch, to me is similar to the disproportionate levels of violence against black Americans when dealing with police. Zed representing police and Maynard represents the white supremacy that enables Zed (the Confederate Flag in the shop), and the place of the assaults – the Pawn Shop – is symbolic of a capitalist wasteland which seems to be the fate of the USA as disparity and tensions rise. Maynard’s sexual gratification by watching Zed assault Marsellus is symbolic of how people watch police murders on TV. Many people support the police under the concept of law and order, or in Zed terms… BDSM. For example, during the Ferguson Riots, I vividly remember the police flaunting their power, wearing eerie paramilitary uniforms – faces covered – as they posed for closeups and rolled MRAPs (tanks) down streets. It was like the postmodern equivalent of putting down a “slave revolt” as millions of white eyes watched in fear from suburbia as their “boys in blue” kept them, their property, their money, etc., safe. What is the difference between the many cop deaths shown on TV and a snuff film? Further, white supremacy often displays hyper-masculinity, often most of the time as being homophobic, yet, Zed and Maynard’s closeted homosexuality is expunged through their violence. Their very acts seems to mean that besides being hypocrites (and rapists), that supremacy poses as one thing, denying certain elements, but deeply desires what is rejects on the surface.

Butch and Marsellus are in the same dilemma but Marsellus suffers because of his identity, and instead Butch chooses not to save himself, in which the opportunity to save himself was afforded by his privilege. This is like white protestors or activists assisting African Americans, Hispanics, etc., in standing up against the embedded underlying domination of the USA. For our world, white supremacy sustains itself because of pure selfishness. The “silent majority”, code word for the white majority, sees racial dynamics simply as such. They see it as teams acquiring points of injustice to justify acquiring power or equity. However, they claim this is what minorities are obsessed with, but minorities did not make this game. While the right-wing lambast the left or progressives or liberal democrats for playing what they perceive to be “identity politics” or the “victim Olympics”, ironically, they are the main purveyors of these concepts – they just have a different strategy for playing it.

Scene from Django Unchained
Maynard watching the assault

If Butch left the Pawn Shop leaving Marsellus he would have been no different than Zed. Butch’s actions would have been no different than the “silent majority’s” safe cozy nostalgia-ridden middle class existence, which might not associate with the KKK or Neo Nazis but their indifference to these groups enables these groups by reducing the severity of their actions, or even if acknowledging them, they are quick to normalize things thereafter without any systemic fixes. The reason this happens is because this “white proletariat and bourgeoisie class” subconsciously do fear losing the economic benefits and the iconography of supremacy.

In conclusion, the pawn shop scene of Pulp Fiction is analogous to the USA (nostalgia, capitalism, etc.) in which Maynard represents white supremacy (adorning his shop with a Confederate Flag) holding onto the dying dream of capitalism, and both he and Zed, represent white supremacy’s attempt to hold onto that power by exerting the most humiliating of acts onto a person of color (e.g., Derek Chauvin’s murder of George Floyd as he called for his mother, is similar to Zed’s rape of Marsellus), yet, Butch (Bruce Willis) whom was spared temporarily because of his privilege as a white man, used his privilege to save Marsellus in the end instead of walking away, i.e., refusing to be indifferent like the “silent majority” or gimps of our actual reality. The pawn shop in Pulp Fiction is where capitalism, white supremacy, fascism, Darwinism, and power all collide to create a horror analogous to that which underlies our surface in the real world. By killing the Gimp, which is symbolic of those who comply with the authority of supremacy, and later killing Maynard who sees himself as a level above the Gimp but subservient to Zed, Butch is similar to non-black BLM protestors in our reality who disregarded their privilege to save the humanity of others despite their external differences. The fact that Maynard and Zed are hyper-real representations of white supremacy holding onto their fading sense of power, thus overcompensating with their depravity, makes me reflect on the quote by DeLillo (1987) which states:

“Nostalgia is a product of dissatisfaction and rage. It´s a settling of grievances between the present and the past. The more powerful the nostalgia, the closer you come to violence.”

#film #toolband #pscyhology #pscyhoanalysis

Bernie Sanders and Wall Street are compatible.

And, that’s a good thing. I’m not saying certain practice on Wall Street don’t need to be regulated, but stocks and socialism can be mesh and will mesh in the the USA because the truth is Bernie won’t do everything he’s saying, but he should win. I voted early for Bernie. I donated to Bernie. I defend Bernie but I can also understand that he’ll need business to accomplish his mission. A Bernie Sanders America would be more like France or England more than Russia during Perestroika or Glasnost. That’s just reality and that’s good. The amount of checks and balances in government should eradicate any fear in those who fear Bernie because of the word, yes – just a word, of socialism. He’s the only consistent candidate. If Trump’s populism had 4 years which unleashed fringe white supremacy creating a very noble backlash by “Social Justice Warriors”, i.e., people who are fed up of negative behavior keeping others down, then Bernie should have 4 years largely since his base is about Power to the People regardless of who they are. It’s about community.

Bernie Sanders and Wall Street are compatible. Bernie shouldn’t scare the stock market; the stock market should like Bernie. A few companies that could benefit.

France, Germany, Sweden, Japan, Canada all have stock exchanges and a more expansive welfare state to spread the costs across a society. I like socialism and I’ve live in a socialist democracy before and honestly….it’s cool. It’s beyond cool. I also like stocks. **** THIS ISN’T FINANCIAL ADVICE BUT RATHER A THEORY OF HOW BERNIE AND THE STOCK MARKET CAN WORK TOGETHER ****

Green New Deal: Green Energy segment ranging from solar panels, green utility companies, battery manufacturers for electric cars, windmill manufacturers, recycling collection. Brookfield Energy Partners (BEP); Canadian Solar (CSIQ); Renewables Energy Group (REGI); Terraform Power, Inc (TERP); Tesla (TSLA); Waste Management (WM) which offers recycling; Ormat Technologies (ORA); General Electric (GE) which has skills in power distribution, etc.; silicon producers which is vital for solar cells such as Tokuyama Corp (TKYMY), Wacker Chemie AG (WKCMF), etc. Yet, when it comes to power infrastructure and controls, you have companies such as Rockwell Automation (ROK), Eaton Corp (ETN),

Universal Education: Sectors that could benefit from Universal Education by driving up demand with federal subsidy spread across the population would include Testing services, book distributors, food providers, and even student loan industries since certain services won’t be covered such as room and board, supplies, travel, etc. Companies such as Chegg (CHGG); American Campus Communities is an REIT that invests in Dormitory housing (ACC); Aramark (ARMK); Sodexho (SDXAY); Pearson PLC (PSO); Cengage which is private but owned by BlackRock (BLK), Franklin Mutual Advisers (BEN), Oaktree Capital Management (OAK), Searchlight Capital Partners, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR); Scholastic Corporation (SCHL); Amazon (AMZN); Starbucks (SBUX); Yum Brand (YUM); Texas Instruments (TXN); Microsoft (MSFT); Apple (AAPL); Jacobs Engineering (J) does Architectural and Engineering services including designing college facilities.

Medicare For All: Diagnostics such as Quest Diagnostics, Inc. (DGX), Neogenomics (NEO) and LabCorp (LH), Lab Equipment; Medical Equipment such GE (MRI machines), ThermoFischer (TMO), Mettler Toledo (MTD), Aligent (A), Koninklijke Philips (PHG); Real Estate Investment Trusts dedicated to Medical Facilities such Medical Property Trust Inc (MPW), Healthpeak Properties (PEAK), Small Cap Pharma engaged in R&D who will have a higher chance of passing trial tests if more people are insured

Yet, markets like certainty and Bernie hasn’t done a good job of at least sitting in a room with business leaders about working things out. Socialism isn’t incompatible with capitalism. Bernie in his head might be a Socialist, just like some Republican might think they’re a Libertarian, but the truth is regarding both, in the outside world, is that the system is a mesh of both. Did we call Reagan a socialist for driving up military spending? Do we call Democrats libertarians because they may be easier on marijuana consumption? Bernie isn’t a threat, but he should be President of the United States as a moral beacon, but the Constitution was wise regardless of who held power because of checks and balances. Bernie would still have to deal with the Congress, SCOTUS, the federal circuit courts, and State Governments. He won’t be Mao, but he’ll be a Mitterrand of France.

What Socialist don’t realize is that government doesn’t really do the work, but rather it’s the job of suppliers, contractors, vendors, etc., who provide the goods and services. I know because I was the guy in government who spent the money on contracted work and the acquisition of items, i.e., I am in Procurement. What the Right Wing doesn’t get is that there is no true free market in the United States. At some point or another tax dollars are subsidizing the economy either through direct contracts (giving business money) or indirectly through public works, such as Corporations that may not pay taxes as much as they should, utilizing public roads or police, etc.

So, when Bernie Sanders talks about the Green New Deal, Medicare for All, and Universal Higher Education, from a reactionary standpoint, it instantly insinuates a type of “wastefulness” that it is inefficient when compared to supply-side economics, free markets, supply and demand, etc. However, these ideas Bernie has are essentially stimulus packages where businesses that are both public and private can benefit. Did the GI Bill destroy the United States? No. Did Medicare drive all the good doctors from the USA? No. Does the Federal Government put businesses out of business for simply existing? No. In fact, if the government were to pull back spending via stimulus, particularly if it abolished contracting, the nation would likely go into a Recession and Depression, even, though, sure, Free Markets would fil the void by possibly creating efficiencies but at the cost of employing people (doing more with less), wages (paying people less; temp workers, etc.), etc.

Hey, guest what?

France is a Social Democracy and they have a stock market, is home to some of the world’s most powerful companies, has a powerful military, and the people not only live a life of materialist consumption and entertainment…they also have healthcare and education. What Bernie Sander’s wants is more in alignment with what you see in France. The funny things to most Americans who call themselves Patriots, which is great if you do, is that France and United States are twins. Think of them that way. We both had our Revolutions, we both inspired and funded each other at various time throughout our history. We are both Democracies despite being organized differently, i.e., the U.S. is a Constitutional Democratic Republic held in Union, whereas France is a Democracy based around a Unitarian form of government with a revolutionary sentiment based on class struggle against the Ancient Regime (nobility) which evolved into an acceptance of Marxist Theory – hence, why French people value workers and organized labor. The United States and France are spiritually linked. We have the Statue of Liberty (which was gift from France) and France has Marianne.  

Timeline Supplement to J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye by proxy unveils the dark roots of Silicon Valley by Quinton Mitchell.


Main Article can be Found Here: https://mitchellrg.com/2020/02/11/j-d-salingers-catcher-in-the-rye-by-proxy-unveils-the-dark-roots-of-silicon-valley-catcher-in-the-rye-is-an-analogy-for-the-cias-use-of-nazis-and-some-of-those-nazis-went-to-silico/

*** SIDE NOTES UNRELATED BUT RELATED, YET NOT INTENDED TO DISTRACT FROM THIS PIECE *** The Cold War was definitely real but more fuzzy that what we’re told. It’s my opinion that the Cold War was planned all along as being essential to the power vacuum created in the aftermath of World War II, which in itself was planned largely by British and American elites and industrialists engaged in Trans-Atlantic commerce (e.g., many American’s had industry in Germany and some German executives of these businesses would join the Nazi Party). The ultimate intention of the Cold War in my view is that it was about controlling the world’s energy markets in the wake of WW2 by dividing the world along two spheres of influence. I say this because before WWI in areas such as Baku, Azerbaijan, Royal Dutch Shell, Anglo Dutch Shell, Nobel Oil, and the oil holdings of the French Rothschild dynasty inhabited this area, yet, a suspicious character emerged on the scene, whom had previously lived in Vienna not too far from future leaders such as Hitler and Tito, and this man was Josef Stalin. With the West supporting the Bolshevik revolution as a secret distance, they were able to not only take out the vestiges of the Holy Roman Empire (Austrian-Hungarian Empire and Germany) but also the Russian Empire. Kaiser Wilhem’s (King George’s cousin) allies in the Ottomans were beat and this cleared the land of Palestine for the Rothschild who were loyal to the British Empire (Members of Parliament, investors in DeBeers Diamonds with Cecil Rhodes, lenders during the Napoleonic Wars with Duke Wellington, and lawyers who acquired the Suez Canal). Czar Nicolas was also King George’s cousin. So the West Anglo American crew not only saw overthrow and war as vital for a balance-of-power, but from a royal angle, it was vital to severe Russia, since Russian nobility had many ties to German nobility and such as alliance as what Otto von Bismarck wanted, would’ve created an empire from Central Europe to the Pacific Ocean. A brilliant move of chess largely by the British policy makers of King George, whom together with the Rothschild and banking houses of the US and Europe, it helped to foster the geopolitical tension that would develop into WW2. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the oil interests that weren’t nationalized where handed over Standard Oil of the Rockefeller Dynasty. Further, energy prices played a strong role in the Cold War because soon after WW2 ended, the Western powers quickly swept into the Middle East seeing the rise of an infant Israel, revolutions in Egypt and Iran, and the opening of Saudi oil interests via the Getty Oil family. It is also important to note that Marxism came from England and Germany via Engels and Marx, and not from Russia, and Marx built his treatise on a post-Hegelian analysis of dialectical materialism, plausibly inspired by the revolutionary sentiments of the earlier French Revolution with its emphasis on Jacobism and Masonic orders committed to Enlightenment ideals. Many intellectuals in the US and UK supported Marxism, just as many supported Capitalism (Liberal Democracy) and Fascism. The synthesis of these behind the door power struggles would manifest themselves into 3rd Way economic thinking. Stalin and Lenin were at first propped up by the West in something akin to regime change that we see today throughout the world, yet, Stalin knowing not to trust the West entirely, started breaking from the “larger picture” and imposed anti-West policy. This unpredictability of the Soviets caused the Western establish to go Cold on Russia and vice versa, yet, throughout the Cold War you had intelligence assets sympathetic to Communism but also certain elites wanting softer tension with Russia.

NOTE AND EUREKA MOMENT: Henry Kissinger served in the CIC same as JD Salinger but they were in two different detachments with Kissinger near Hesse and Salinger towards Bavaria. Yet, Kissinger served in the 970th Counter Intelligence Corps. I remembered back to a CIA document (available to the public) I read a while ago, by Michael C. Ruffner, that dealt with how the SSU, the precursor to the CIA, and successor to the OSS, started linking up with Soviet defectors but many were hard-line nationalist and antisemties. This falls in line with the policy of Allen Dulles who absorbed the Nazi intel apparatus into the CIA’s ranks, and gave them immunity in Germany, USA, Europe, and their hideaways in Latin America. Kissinger’s unit is brought up with, “Lt Col. Ellington D. Golden, Region IV, 970th CIC Detachment, to Commanding Officer, 970th CIC Detachment, “Hrynioch, Ivan,” 18 November 1947, (C), enclosing Special Agent Camille S. Hajdu, Memorandum for the Officer in Charge, “Hrynioch.17 November 1947, (C), in ivan firynioch, Dossier XE-20-19•66, Investigative Records Repository, US Army Intelligence and Security Command, Fort George G.Meade, Maryland (hereafter cited by dossier number, IRR, INSCOM).” (Ruffner, 1998).

From my research it seems safe to say that Salinger had no major role in knowing the OSS/SSU later CIA and other parts of the CIC in helping Nazis and European Nationalists which would create the intel network in Cold War Europe and Stay Behind Units. As a lowly corporal and later Sergeant, Salinger had his own inner demons, though he was privy to the fact that his CIC Nazi hunting was in vein. Yet, Kissinger, on the other hand likely played more of a prominent role in establishing these Far Right networks since his 970th CIC unit is mentioned in a CIA release by Michael C. Ruffner (1998) detailing how Frank Wisner took CIC information to run reports on how to establish and use emirges or “cells” in Europe to fight the Communists. Yet, these units, which had rival ethnic ties, a legacy of antisemitism, and many fought for the Nazis would go to inspire lingering antisemitism in the West. But, remember, Kissinger is Jewish and later as Secretary of State, a powerful role in the Cold War, he must have known that the CIA was utilizing far-right Pro Nazi forces across the globe for clandestine operations. Even, Mossad, would tap into such networks when the time was right such as the utilization of Otto Skorzeny for the assassination of German scientists helping the Egyptians (many had worked with Paperclip scientists who were sent to the USA). By the time Salinger landed back in the USA with his German wife in 1947, his work may have been referenced, but he was largely remove from the works of the CIA which picked up around 1947 to 1951. However, there were CIC agents and CIA agents still hunting Nazis, meaning there was internal politics going on, and I wonder if Salinger even kept up with any veteran friends and if any complaints were shared. Regardless, Salinger’s war-time experiences near battles and as a CIC agent had already likely given him enough jaded and nihilistic rage to manifest itself passively via the character of Holden Caulfield in Catcher in the Rye, i.e., phonies, are the top brass and intel community.

The CIC seems to have been coopted by the intel community, likely via the officer class’s relationship with the intel community (Ivy League, etc), and Kissinger’s unit of the 970th may have been one of those. Klaus Barbie himself was a CIC informant and a British “agent” had testified on behalf of Otto Skorzeny, illuminating that Dulles, the OSS, MI6, and British and American elites wanted the Nazis to be “sparred” after the war. Wisner’s recommendation of using Soviet defectors (while secretly using Nazi defectors under Allen Dulles direction) also signs like back to Lee’s (1997) book about how the Nazi intel community sided with the West but also the Soviets, thus giving themselves more leverage in proving how important their continuity would be to the CIA. It’s also important to know that Frank Wisner would later kill himself after his career took a dive after his association with the Cambridge Five scandal of Kim Philby. The Cambridge Five believed Marxism-Leninism was the best political system and the best way to fight fascism. Thus, such facts calls into question how Cold exactly was the Cold War. For example, Ivy Lee, The Rockefeller Family’s media fixer, visited Russia in the early 20th century and wanted improved cooperation with Russia, and later David Rockefeller would help set up the first American bank in Russia during the 1970s, plus, sitting on economic boards assessing Russia’s banking infrastructure not far after the Fall of the Berlin Wall. Relating to how the Nazi intel community used Soviet and Western allegiances to their advantages, Lee (1997) states, “The Americans also tried to recruit Skorzeny’s partner from the July 20 affair, Major General Otto Ernst Remer. But Remer spurned the offers, opting instead to collaborate with the Soviets during the Cold War. Those who looked to the East after the Third Reich fell took their historical cue from Bismarck, the Prussian realpolitiker who unified Germany “by blood and iron” in 1871. Bismarck insisted that Germany must align with Russia, its proximate and mineral-rich neighbor. This was also Remer’s wholehearted belief” (p. 6). It should be of note that this West East Fascist Intel dynamic still holds sway because East Germany to do this day, which isn’t as economically prosperous as the West, is still open for Russian influence particularly as it pushes far-right ideology.

A big question that seems unanswered is did J.D. Salinger keep up with any of his old Counterintelligence buddies, despite his elusive persona? With Salinger being back in the states by 1947, right as the CIA was being born and utilizing the Gehlen Organization to set up West German intelligence, it makes you wonder if Salinger ever kept up with any of his old troop buddies. Did they know something, especially that the CIC’s mission was shifting from Nazi Hunting to Anti-Communism and this meant many Nazis were being used by the CIA? J.D. Salinger according to the book by Alsen (2018) illuminates a picture of Salinger seeing Nazi hunting as futile, but is it possible his experiences, plus, maybe the rumors of his CIC peers, helped inspire the negative energy found in Holden Caulfield. “Phonies” serve as the CIC top brass, OSS, etc. Ironically, when Ronald Reagan was almost assassinated by a fan of Catcher in the Rye, Reagan’s secretary, Helen Von Damme, had ties to former Nazis such as Otto Von Bolschwing. I’m not making a direct connection, but with Salinger’s later use of Hinduism and yoga, it seems like the universe dished out a dose of cosmic karma.

Salinger served with the Twelfth Infantry Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division, 4th CIC detachment, of the United States Army, having landing at D-Day on Utah Beach (yet, landed with the 8th Infantry Regiment at 0645), witnessed the pre-D-day friendly fire disaster at Slatpon Sands (Exercise Tiger), Liberation of Paris (Salinger’s 4th Infantry Division were the first to enter), dealt with the friendly fire accident at Saint Lo, and was near action in the Battle of Bulge campaigns such as the Hurtgen Forest (Kurt Vonnegut was taken POW. 12th Infantry has 3,142 troops but came out with 1,493 casualties) and Echternach (the 12th Infantry lost a whole company) near Luxembourg City. The 4th Infantry Division comprised the 8th, 4th, and 22nd Infantry Regiments. Each regiment had 3,200 men divided into 3 battalions, but the battalions were divided into 4 rifle companies. As separate auxiliary attachments there was an engineering, medical, quartermaster, HQ (which includes the CIC detachment). Salinger was a Sergeant and Corporal. The CIC unit has two officers and fifteen enlisted men. CIC members didn’t wear rank or insignia and carried a .45 caliber handgun, but also reviewed the work of the Military Police. Towns Salinger’s division were at included Zweifall, Saint Martin, Beuzeville au Plain, Saint Lo, Luxembourg, Nuremberg etc. Later his CIC detachment set up offices at Villa Oberwegner. He married in Pappenheim.

My excavation of this subject is based on two things. 1) From a clinical psychology perspective of helping people because I feel the Catcher in the Rye reveals the type of nihilism and existentialism associated with feelings of modern alienation, attention seeking, and feeling lost especially among boys/men who tend to have a hard time dealing with the larger questions of life especially once the notion of utility is mechanized or dictated by corporate images, and are more prone to compensate for such voids with a type of misdirected hyper masculinity leading to violence rather than holistic practices. For example, mass shooters for instance can be or have been compared to people like Holden Caulfield. Yet, Holden as a character who is deeply wounded I see a person worth saving, helping, and assisting. The existential underpinnings of Catcher in the Rye foreshadowed the inevitable shift towards a nihilistic epoch largely produced by a sense of general relativity which in my opinion was created by the hyper-reality of post-capitalism (so I’m at odds with self-ascribed classical liberal gurus such as Jordan B. Peterson), e.g., mass media, life mimicking art rather than art mimicking life, cerebral marketing techniques meant to manipulate the human psyche including sex drives, the erosion of social units due to division-of-labor, financialization, extreme globalization without mitigation protocols in place, i.e., safety nets, and ultimately the reduction of the human soul into material on a type of Darwinist evolutionary trajectory of the strongest survives – a notion with prevails in our culture regardless of political affiliation. 2) To understand history and how the world works such as my analysis on what I call the ACZS Network (Anglo-American Continental Zionist Saud). The group which really runs the world and has run the world since WW2. A group of competing factions in a type of cabal mafia network who cooperate, share ideas, but share a common goal of dominating the majority of humans. Yet, as times change, I’ve noticed the slow entry of Russia into the network and I warn that the style of its entry, with it being far-right, can have grave consequences for the notion of the liberal democracy and the freedoms we value.

** NOTE ** Max Von Hohenloe is mentioned in this timeline and he was referenced in Lee’s (1997) book. This Max von Hohenloe must be Prince Max Egon zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1897-1968), and not be confused with the other Max von Hohenloe (1931-1994). The Hohenloe family had many branches which included the Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst. The Schillingfurst branch included Stephanie von Hohenloe who is allegedly from a Jewish common family who married into the Hohenloe, which is more of a common practice than talked about, such as parts of the House of Löwenstein-Wertheim. Stephanie von Hohenloe was a Nazi spymaster, awarded a medal by Hitler, and went to England to spy and seduce some members of the English far right aristocracy. This is where groups such as the Cliveden Set of Lady Astor but also Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, a tabloid publisher sympathetic to Fascism. Her intrigues were during the time of Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement of Hitler which compelled him to invade other nations.

December 1942: Walter Schellenberg, head of the SD (SS foreign intelligence service) who also happened to be a director of ITT’s German subsidiary came in December 1942 when he dispatched Prince Max von Hohenloe, a Prussian aristocrat and businessman, to Bern to se whether a rapprochement with the United States was possible. (Lee, p. 19)

September 12, 1943: [Otto Skorzeny saves Mussolini] On September 12, 1943, they swooped upon the mountain stronghold, stormed the Hotel Camp Imperatore, where the Duce was incarcerated, and plucked him from captivity. With little time to spare, Mussolini and Skorzeny piled into a light reconnaissance plane. The pilot used the sudden, thousand foot drop off the side of the mountain to gather speed. When it pulled out of dive, the plane barley cleared the trees below. An unshaven Mussolini turned white from vertigo. With tears streaming down his cheeks, the Duce proclaimed en route to a reunion with the Fuhrer, “I knew my friend Adolf Hitler would not leave me in the lurch.” (Lee, p. 17-18)

July 20, 1944: Adolf Hitler and his top military advisors had gathered at the Wolf’s Lair, the Fuhrer’s headquarters in East Prussia, for an early-afternoon strategy session on July 20, 1944. They were listening to Lieutenant General Adolf Heusinger, chief of operations of the Wehrmacht (German army), deliver a bleak reports about Germany’s latest misfortunes on the eastern front. Suddenly a violent explosion hurled everyone onto the floor. Writhing and coughing amid thick smoke and dust, several German officers could hear Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel shout, “Wo ist der Fuhrer?” (“Where is the Fuhrer?”) (Lee, p. 3)

August 10, 1944: On August 10, 1944, twenty days after the abortive coup attempt, sixty-seven prominent German industrialists – including leaders of Messerschmitt, Krupp, Volkwagenwerk, and other major companies – gathered at the Hotel Maison Rouge in Strasbourg. During the top-secret conclave, they made preparations “for the economic campaign which will follow the end of the war,” according to the minutes to the meetings, which were subsequently discovered by the U.S. Army Counterintelligence Corps. Conference records indicate that the participants had agreed to shift a prodigious amount of Nazi loot to neutral countries. Some Nazi firms would be relicensed outside Germany in order to dodge reparations claims the minutes noted, “so that after the defeat a strong, new Reich can be built” (Lee, p. 22)

September 1944: By September 1944, there were several confirmed reports that German submarines were taking both people and plundered capital from Spain to South America. (Lee, p. 22)

September 1944: In September 1944, when Hungary’s dictator, Admiral Miklos Horthy, a Nazi ally, was on the verge of suing for peace with Russia as Axis fortunes plunged, Skorzeny led a contingent of Special Forces into Budapest to kidnap Horthy and replace his government with the more hard-line Fascist Arrow Cross regime. That regime, in turn, went on to kill or to deport to concentration camps tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews who had managed to survive the war up to that point. (Raviv & Melman, 2016)

December 7, 1944: Salinger’s boss, Captain Oliver Appleton, reported that “Agents of this detachment took over the duties of the 83rd CIC Detachment in the City of Luxembourg” and that “offices were established at Mondorf, Senningen, and Junglinster”  (Alsen, p. 77, para 2)

December 16-24, 1944: The Battle of Luxembourg cost Salinger’s Twelfth Infantry Regiment almost as many casualties as the Battle of the Hurtgen Forests. The regiment was especially hard hit during the action around the town of Echernach. The town is located on the Sauer River, twenty-one miles northeast of Luxembourg City. During the Echternach battle – which raged from December 16 to 24, 1944 – the Twelfth Regiment lost a whole company that was taken prisoner by the Germans. But the regiment held the town and prevented the Wehermacht from advancing toward the city of Luxembourg. The Battle of Echternatch was part of Field Marshall Gerd von Rundstedt’s preparation for the Ardennes Offensive, also known as the Battle of the Bulge. (Alsen, p. 76, para 1).

January 1, 1945: Although little of the work of Salinger’s CIC detachment in Luxembourg was noteworthy, they did make one spectacular arrest whey they apprehended a Nazi spy outside the command post of the Eighth Regiment. This happened on January 1, 1945, a week after the Battle of Echternach. The spy’s name was Marcel Silberseisen, or perhaps Silbereisen, and his instructions were as follows: “Subject was…to find out especially how many armored units there were in the area, their unit numbers and strength in men and weapons, whether or not they were fully motorized, and their locations; also the location of any other units observed.” (Alsen, p. 78, para 2).

April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies (Lee, p. 25)

April 27, 1945: Kaufering Lager IV was labeled the Krankenlager, the camp for the sick of the other ten Kaufering camps. But it was really an extermination camp because the sick prisoners, most of them Jews from Eastern Europe, did not receive any medical attention. Instead they were left to die from their sicknesses or from starvation. Soldiers of the US Army’s Twelfth Armored Division discovered Kaufering Lager IV around noon on April 27, 1945. At that time some of the camp’s building were still burning. On the previous day, April 26, the last eight hundred prisoners who were well enough to travel had been loaded onto railroad cattle cars to be transported to the main camp at Dachau. The morning of April 27, just before the SS guards abandoned the camp, they had a tank truck spray gasoline on the roofs of the eight earthen huts that housed the prisoners who were too sick to be evacuated. Then the SS set hose huts on fire. (Alsen, p. 83)

April 28, 1945: Salinger probably went to see the camp (Kaufering Lager IV, a concentration extermination camp for the sick). (Alsen, p. 83).

** The transcripts of the Dacau war crimes trials supply the most accurate Kaufering death count. According to those figures, Salinger would have seen the corpses of eighty-six prisoners who had been burned to death, plus 274 others of people had died from starvation or typhus or had been shot to death. (Alsen, p. 86)

** The astonishing thing about Salinger’s visit to the Kaufering concentration camp is that it did not result in a change of his nonjudgmental attitude towards Nazis or in the change of his negative attitude toward the war and the US Army (Alsen, p. 88)

May 13, 1945: Salinger’s May 13, 1945, letter to Elizabeth Murray shows that his nervous collapse had a more profound effect on his mind than mere despondency – that it impaired his judgement and his rationality. (Alsen, p. 95)

May 16, 1945: On May 16, 1945, he (Otto Skorzeny) emerged from the woods with a small group of German soldiers and strutted into the command post of the U.S. Thirtieth Infantry Regiment near Salzburg, Austria. (Lee, p. 26)

June 1945: Henry Kissinger (970th Counter Intelligence Corps) was made commandant of the Bensheim metro CIC detachment, Bergstrasse district of Hesse, with responsibility for de-Nazification of the district. (Isaacson, 1992)

July 1945: A week after the end of the war, Salinger suffered a mental collapse. But it took him two months, until July 1945, to seek help in the psychiatric ward of a civilian hospital. He mentions his nervous breakdown in a letter he wrote to Ernest Hemingway from that hospital… (Alsen, p. 89, para 1)

** In his letter to Hemingway, Salinger says that his nervous breakdown made him turn to “a General Hospital in Nuremberg.” Because in 1945 no other hospital in Nuremberg had a psychiatric clinic, that hospitals must have been the Klinikum Nord, then called the Allgemeines Stadtisches Krankenhaus, the Municipal General Hospital.

July 1945: In July 1945, two months after the end of the war, Dr. Ulrich Fleck, a prominent Nazi, still remained doctor of the psychiatric clinic at the Nuremberg hospital. Dr. Fleck’s file in Nuremberg City archived shows that he had been a Strumbannarzt (storm trooper doctor) of the paramilitary SA from 1933 to 1934, and a member of the Nazi Party from 1937-1945 (Alsen, p.91, para 1)

** And two of his letters from 1945 show that he came to see his Nazi hunting as a joke (Alsen, p. 110, para 4).

July 20, 1945: Operation Paperclip is initiated but wasn’t officially approved by President Truman until the next year.

September 1945: In September 1945, Skorzeny was escorted to Nuremberg, where the war crimes trials were about to begin (Lee, p. 30).

September 20, 1945: OSS disbanded, ironically enough, on September 20, 1945, the same day the Prussian spy chief (Reinhard Gehlen) arrived in the United States. (Lee, p. 34)

October 18, 1945: JD Salinger married the German, Slyvia Welter in Pappenheim, Germany by forging a French passport in order to get around fraternization laws. (Alsen, p. 102-103)

November 1945: By November 1945, when Salinger began his work as a special investigator, the chief responsibility of the CIC had become the denazification program. The program was created by the Allied Control Council even before Germany and Austria were completely occupied. The purpose of denazification was to remove all Nazi officials from positions of influence and to punish all former members of the Nazi Party from having supported an evil regime. The basic assumption behind denazification was that all Germans and Austrians were Nazis unless they could provide proof to the contrary. (Alsen, p. 111, para 1)

March 5, 1946: Originally, OMGUS (the Office of the Military Government, United States) tried to accomplish the task of denazification through special courts staffed by the divisional civilian affairs detachments of the US Army. But the courts could not keep up with the staggering number of former Nazis waiting for their trials. By March 1946, the military government’s judge advocate estimated that the number of persons in internment camps was 100,000, but the Denazification Policy Board believed that “the number to be tried might well be 500,000.” The military governor of the American Zone of Occupation, General Lucius Clay, reported to Washington that “even if the War Department were to send him 10,000 Americans for the purpose, he could not denazify the US Zone”. OMGUS resolved the dilemma by turning the denazification program over to the Germans. This happened during a ceremony at Munich City Hall on March 5, 1946. But the German denazification courts, or Spruchkammern, immediately developed a reputation for whitewashing former Nazi officials. This must have made Salinger realize that denazification was not working. (Alsen, p. 113-114).

April 1946: American intelligence had its first tentative encounter with Ukrainian emigre groups as early as April 1946, marking the beginnings of one of the earliest and most controversial covert action projects of the Cold War. The Strategic Services Unit (SSU. the successor to the wartime Office of Strategic Services, or OSS. and precursor to the Central intelligence Group and Central Intelligence Agency) learned about anti-Soviet Ukrainian resistance movements that continued after the war in Western Europe.’ Boleslav A. Holtsman, SSU’s X-2 (Counterintelligence) representative in Munich, became the primary American contact with Ukrainian leaders in the American zone in Germany

May 10, 1946: Jerry and Sylvia Salinger arrived in New York on the War Shipping Administration freighter Ethan Allen. On her immigration form, Slyvia again claimed French citizenship. (Alsen, p. 102)

July 1946: Upon returning to Germany in July 1946 (Reinhard Gehlen who had been at Fort Hunt, MD working for the Intel community) he immediately pulled together the makings of a sophisticated espionage apparatus known as “the Org” (Lee, p. 35)

1947: Gehlen’s spies would work initially for army intelligence and then for the CIA, which was founded in 1947. Supported by regular subsidies from U.S. taxpayers and wealthy German industrialists, he set up his base of operations inside a mysterious, high-walled compound near Munich that had once house that staff of Rudolf Hess and Martin Bormann, Hitler’s deputies (Lee, p. 35)

1947: By 1947, there had officially been “a change in emphasis,” according to a once-classified CIC report, “from the denazification mission to the collection of positive intelligence: – which meant that anti-Communism rather than Nazi hunting was now the guiding principles of CIC policy. To the extent CIC operatives continued to chase after Nazis, it was usually not to capture them but to recruit them (Lee, p. 36)

September 1947: Nevertheless, in September 1947 he (Otto Skorzeny) was acquitted of illegal actions during the Battle of the Bulge after a British officer testified that Skorzeny had done nothing that his Allied counterparts had not themselves considered or attempted. Despite the Dachau verdict, Hitler’s ace commando made a lasting impression on Eisenhower, who, as president of the United States, kept a photo of Skorzeny in the White House office (Lee, p. 33)

March 17, 1948: In early March 1948, Frank Wisner (University of Virginia Seven Society), a former OSS officer and a member of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff, proposed that the State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee (SANACC) form an ad hoc committee to explore the use of Soviet exiles. Under the authority of NSC 4-A, SAN-ACC took up Wisner’s proposal and circulated his paper, “Utilization of Refugees from the Soviet Union in U.S. National Interest,” as SAN-ACC 395. Wisner proposed in SANACC 395 to “increase defections among the elite of the Soviet World and to utilize refugees from the Soviet. World in the national interests of the U.S.” The paper noted the great dissatisfaction of many Russians since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 and the growth of Russian anti-Communism during the German occupation in World War H. Wisner believed that at least 700,000 Russians were scattered in European DP camps and elsewhere. This figure, Wisner claimed, represented “the potential nucleus of possible Freedom Committees encouraging resistance movements into the Soviet World and providing contacts with an underground.” According to Wisner, the United States remained “ill-equipped to engage in the political and psychological conflict with the Soviet World,” and the “Soviet satellite areas like the USSR are tending to become a terra incognito.” American ignorance of the Soviet Union in all fields and at all levels, he lamented,was profound and growing. (Ruffner, 1998)

October 1948: As a result of Frank Wisner’s SANACC 395. CIA undertook an-other study of the various emigre groups in Europe. Zsolt Aradi and Boleslav Holtiman had moved on to new assignments, and with CIA’s Office of Special Operations in Germany, now had the responsibility of assessing the Ukrainians… Completed his report, known as Project ICON in October 1948. The report drew from and updated Aradi’s earlier December 1946 work on Ukrainian nationalism. He based. his conclusions on the files of the Army Counter Intelligence Corps in Munich and CIA records.”

1949: There were plenty of true believers in the CIA, which was given the green light to engage in political actions, propaganda, and paramilitary operations that relied heavily on the services of Gehlen and his “spooky Nazi outfit,” as one U.S. agent described it. The Org already employed four thousand Germans when it was bolted lock, stock, and barrel into the CIA in 1949. This was during the peak of the “Chicken Little” era of American espionage, when the sky was always on the verge of falling, or so it seemed. The Agency began shelling out what amounted to $200 million (some o fit siphoned from the Marshall Plan kitty) to satisfy the Org’s voracious, covert appetite (Lee, p. 37)

January 26, 1949: On January 26, 1949, a decree of the Family Court of Queens County, New York, annulled Salinger’s marriage to Slyvia Welter. (Alsen, p. 102)

1950: Gehlen’s biggest booster at the CIA was Allen Dulles, who started running off-the-shelf intelligence activities in Eastern Europe from the office of his Wall Street law firm before he formally joined the Agency in 1950 (Lee, p. 37)

July 1, 1951: Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is published

August 23, 1951: Frank Wisner becomes Deputy Director of Plans of the CIA and is reported to have been instrumental in the Iran Revolution and Guatemala, etc.

February 2, 1954: Otto von Bolschwing arrives in the USA (Carey, 1981)

1962: Heinz Krug, a Nazi scientist who went to work for the Egyptians to help them develop rockets goes missing and was likely kidnapped by a team lead by Otto Skorzeny. “After Krug was shot, the three Israelis poured acid on his body, waited awhile and then buried what was left in a hole they had dug beforehand. They covered the makeshift grave with lime, so that search dogs — and wild animals — would never pick up the scent of human remains.” “During the war that ended 17 years earlier, Krug was part of a team of superstars at Peenemünde, the military test range on the coast of the Baltic Sea, where top German scientists toiled in the service of Hitler and the Third Reich. The team, led by Wernher von Braun, was proud to have engineered the rockets for the Blitz that nearly defeated England.” (Reviv and Melman, 2016)

November 27, 1962: Parcel sent to rocket scientist Wolfgang Pilz exploded in his office when opened on 27 November 1962, injuring his secretary. [Otto Skorzeny likely behind it after being recruited by Mossad in order to not be outed as a Nazi]

October 29, 1965: Frank Wisner kills himself

March 1969: Otto von Bolschwing got a job in high technology. He was retained as an international business consultant by TCI, the Sacramento firm. The company planned to commercialize on technology development in the Silicon Valley and used a few years earlier to monitor troop movements in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war according to the firm’s founder, Oswald S. Williams. TCI’s subsidiaries in Palo Alto and Mountain View, Advanced Information Systems and International Imaging Systems, were developing a high-volume computer network for business and a navigation system for oil tankers using satellite communications, Williams said.”


Alsen, Eberhard (2018) J.D. Salinger and the Nazis. University of Wisconsin Press (Madison, WI). ISBN 978-0-299-31570-2

Carey, P. (1981). Ex-Nazi’s brilliant U.S. career strangled in a web of lies. Originally published by the Sun Jose Mercury News, Retrieved February 10, 2020, from, http://spitfirelist.com/news/ex-nazi%E2%80%99s-brilliant-u-s-career-strangled-in-a-web-of-lies/

Isaacson, Walter (1992). Kissinger: A Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN978-0-671-66323-0.

Lee, Martin A. (1997) The Beast Reawakens. Little, Brown & Company (Canada). ISBN 0-316-51959-6

Reviv, D. and Melman, Y. (2016) The Strange Case of a Nazi Who Became an Israeli Hitman. Haaretz. Published March 27, 2016. Retrieved on March 8, 2020 from https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/europe/the-strange-case-of-a-nazi-who-became-a-mossad-hitman-1.5423137

Ruffner, Michael C. (1998) https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/STUDIES%20IN%20INTELLIGENCE%20NAZI%20-%20RELATED%20ARTICLES_0015.pdf

Don’t underestimate Russian infiltration because of the Muh Russia Russiagate failure. The Dove Left. The State, and the Alt Right are complicit in undermining Russian influence in the West and USA

Let us get a few things clarified. 1) arguing against white supremacy isn’t hating people. Sure, for some it might be that, but white people tend to focus on the most vocal opposition force to paint a larger picture as if that mentality quantifies the entire group. I don’t dislike white people at all. I grew up with them, many friends, and some I consider family with no realization of race at all. Arguing against white supremacy isn’t arguing against the “classification” of white people or European culture or history, nor is it an attack on naturally occurring white majorities in traditionally white majority nations. These majorities didn’t come into being simply because the entire population of a specific nation said we have to shut out others, but they arose because it was a natural occurrence. Even as immigration came to be as we can still see, white majorities still prevail in Western nations, and even if there is intermingling, the white majorities in theory actually get larger despite the notion that diminish since many children sired from such relationships have equally as much of chance of assimilating back into the majority. So, what, there’s majorities of white people. That’s not the issue. The issue is with latent racism, the covert language of promote it, the marginalization of other group’s cultures in order to promote a sense of superiority (in which many supremacists have not contributed do despite being racist), reactionary fear, marginalization of other people’s viewpoints, and using fear of becoming a minority to justify emboldening the poor treatment of native minorities or new coming immigrants. So, I can rally against white supremacy since it does have a history, as all people do, of nonsensical violence, but I can also stand up for white people, see them as friends, family, etc. The goal of the racist is to prevent you from making a separation between the ills of white supremacy and the fact that white people simply exists. To them racism and white identity are synonymous, so they cleverly use attacks against white supremacy to justify slipping in their segregation mentality.

Disclaimer: I’m not saying the Russia as a county or a people are bad or to be feared. I’m not saying that Orthodox Christianity is bad. Russian Americans are Americans, yet, there’s an element forming like an viral enzyme silently in the body of the United States and Europe. No on notices, people deny it, people are even cynical because of the malpractice of those who are charged to protect us, yet, it’s there. However, you have separate the good from the bad. The bad being that certain elements, emphasis on certain, are influencing the US and European Far Right. Sometimes its coming out of Russia but other times its an appropriation of US and European Far Right groups such as the Alt Right and Neo Nazis who find inspiration in Russian Imperial and Soviet Era iconography. This Alt Right sect despite not being taken serious by mainstream or moderate Republicans is an influential force within the MAGA movement. Due to the major stall or let down of the Russia-gate situation, I think most Americans have relegated Russia to the status of “Muh, Russia”, but they often don’t see the actual influence of Russia within the online Alt Right, but also in establishment GOP Republican politics. Even the Pacifist Anti-Establishment Left (The Greyzone, Graham Elwood, Jimmy Dore, etc.) is complicit in underestimating Russian influence because like the conspiracy minded Right Wing (Richard Spencer, Jay Dyer, Know More News with Adam Green, Lauren Southern, Alex Jones, etc.), they too fear the government and look at the government as a propaganda machine for war, which is true, but they overlook the threat of Russian influence within American white supremacy in order to hedge against war. War is bad, but also being ignorant of Russian influence in order to support your cause which therefore supports the Alt Right is a big issue.

Russia-gate was fiasco was co-opted by the American power establishment who contorted the real truth for their own benefit but threw the American people under the bus on a nearly two-year interactive conspiracy game, largely, for the state not to lose too much leverage considering the USA was spread thin globally during the Bush and Obama Administrations. The USA was exposed and vulnerable. This being-spread-thin-status of the American defense apparatus, created a prime opportunity for Russia to make gains, defensive barriers, but also exploit the underlying white supremacy of the reactionary right-wings of the United States and Western/Central Europe. For example, Russia manipulated the Right Wing’s fear over Latin American immigration in the USA; presented itself as an alternative to the issues of globalism by pointing out the US NATO war-created refugees of Syria and Libya and the creation of a transnational corridor for undocumented immigration, and provided an “Anti-Modern” ideology to combat expanding rights to women, minorities, and non-heterosexuals.

The US Mainstream Media and State used real facts in part but also many lies and fabrications to launch a reactionary campaign to hedge Trump’s unilateral power after he won since he held both Chambers of Congress, nominated two SCOTUS judges, nominated many Federal Circuit Court Judges, and had a loyal Executive Branch who’ve obstructed justice in many cases and is full of unqualified individuals and where many have ties to Russian money or money interests. Yet, after they got what they wanted, they dropped the case and quickly moved on to other issues on the circuit of the 24/7 news feeds. However, Russia may not have hacked into any voting machines (though it’s plausible Israelis who have strong ties to Russia did) but Russia more so did “social networking”. Russian infiltration is a combination of multiple tactics such as (1) Spread Soft Power such as buying real-estate, sport teams, wining and dining elites, and selling an image of wealth and prosperity such as in the Russian billionaire class (2) Appealing to a common European ancestry especially since the political-left has made gains analyzing and deconstructing white supremacy, yet, this tactic create generation of eager white people searching for identity in a change world that affects us all regardless of race, (3) Using “postmodern” tactics such as online content spanning blogging, podcasts, chat rooms, and anonymous accounts, etc., and (4) Religion such as using Orthodoxy as a new alternative to re-establishing Christianity by undermining Catholicism and Protestantism, but also equating the Orthodox Church with Israel as a type of alternative to American Zionism. Thus the strategy is multi-dimensional and uses isolated categories which can rub off on each other to merge and create a larger consensus for Russian acceptance.

It’s a good documentary that isn’t about racism and is a story about solidarity between nations, yet, in a way it’s a type of normalizing Russian nationality in the USA (which is fine) but in other realms there’s the Alt Right incorporating Russian iconography, so this documentary is like a casual acceptance of Russian nationality.